Eco geographic and agro morphologic diversity in pakistani rice landrace genotypes

Abstract

Evaluation of previously- diversity among accessions that are protected is useful in plant development methods and germplasm management. Within this research 174 Pakistani Grain landrace genotypes were examined for 9 agro and 18 quantitative - traits. Considerable quantity of genetic selection was noticed for many of the characteristics analyzed. Suggest values of genotypes were in contrast to Very Basmati, IR36, three check types and JP5.

Release

Grain is developed in most four provinces of Pakistan. Nevertheless, the plot under grain differs significantly in one land to a different. Sindh and the Punjab would be the main grain growing provinces of the sum total grain in the united states with about 59% and 33%. The rest of the 5% of the region is grown in Baulochistan and 3PERCENT in NWFP (FAO, 2004). Even though that it’s developed region is significantly smaller than grain (significantly more than 7.24 trillion), it's an excellent effect on national economy because of two factors. Rice may be the only harvest which may be developed effectively in huge portions of salt- water-logged and ridden places although it helps not just the reclamation for that farming of plants that are additional but additionally offer food. Subsequently, superior-quality basmati includes a regularly growing need within the international nations. Therefore, is an excellent range for enhancing the foreign currency making by transferring it in larger amount. Because of those details, enhance the quality of grain and it's extremely appealing to improve the manufacturing. The standard is specially more essential in the “trade watch point”, because it is device involve in keeping the need within the international marketplace in opposition with additional increasing exporting nations after which growing. Therein no questioning the truth that love may be quality's really single. The pollutants not just limit the move industry, but additionally cause losses towards the customers and the farmers alike. Consequently, these must perhaps be reduced (Salim et al. 2003).

Grain (Oryza sativa (2n = 24) is just a monocot seed and is one of the Poaceae family and Oryzoidea subfamily. It occupies nearly one fifth of the sum total area area under earth cereals. It addresses about 148 thousand hectares annually that's approximately 11 percentage of the planet-developed area. It's existence in past as well as for over fifty percent of mankind, it formed establishments of vast amounts of people on the planet and the civilizations (Farooq et al. 2009). Grain is just a main source for individual of micronutrients and macro. It's utilized as one of the choice food in Asia and supply for a lot more than two-billion people worldwide. It offers more than 21 percentage of the requirements of the planet's populace or more to 76 percent of the populace of Southeast Asia's intake (Fitzgerald et al. 2009). Based upon the cleansing water accessibility, grain could be developed in virtually any area of the nation from sea-level as much as 2500m peak. Pakistan includes a potential in dirt that allows the objectives of the many vibrant potential for that creation of grain along with an environment. Contemplating the performance, ideal planting months and also heat variation, grain growing places could be split in four environmental areas (Salim et al. 2003). Introgression of genes from additional grain variety can offer genetic variance to enhance grain and meet grain output affecting. Morphological characteristics including ones and both qualitative are accustomed to assess genetic connection among genotypes (Goodman 1972; Bajracharya. 2006). Agronomic analysis was employed with preferred efficiency by Akram for testing of traces. (1995) in-field resulting in the id of types holding longer and good grains as contributors for usage in-breeding plans targeted for that enhancement of feed duration in Basmati rice. The interrelations among feed quality characteristics might not be useless to examine the connection among feed quality elements as well as for increasing choice requirements (Koutroubas ETAL. 2004).

Maintaining because these advantages, morphological variance is just a choice criterion for seed researchers among genotypes. Although the ecological elements also perform an essential part in morphological variance however the understanding of agro- diversity and also variance among harvest species' circulation sample might be an useful help with plant development methods and germplasm management. Zeng et al. (2007) analyzed genetic selection centered on ecogeographic area and morphological people of rice landraces (Oryza sativa L.) in Yunnan, China. Main variation in environmental range catalog of grain assets between areas or prefectures in province exists. Sanni. (2008) analyzed the connection in physical routine and morphological variance of 880 rice landrace in Coˆte d’Ivoire for 13 agro-morphological characters. Consequence of the volume confirmed differential distribution of landraces with proceeding, peak and readiness interval which resembled various Oryza sativa landraces in Coˆte d’Ivoire's circulation sample that proved helpful in programs and germplasm management.

Morpho- traits are an essential device in fingers of seed breeders for love and id screening of grain varieties. Existing research relies upon rice landraces' evaluation using quantitative characteristics as gun. The study's goal would be to assess choice of greater genotype to be used, local evaluation of polymorphism and physical sample of variety in-breeding plans.

Supplies and Techniques

Plant Materials

Rice genotypes utilized in this research contains 174 landraces from all environmental grain growing areas gathered in a germplasm collection task in 1974. Selections contain three main grain growing provinces Punjab, Sindh and NWFP (Northwest Frontier Province) of Pakistan where's utilized as second main harvest after grain. These germplasm accessions have now been maintained ex-situ in gene bank of NARC (National Agricultural Research Center), Islamabad.

Test Site

The tests were performed during growing conditions 2006 under area situation at Institute - Genetic Sources and biotechnology, National Agricultural Research Institute (33.40º D and 73.07º E) roughly at an elevation of 518meters above sea-level.

Experimental Design

A room grew up into area in containers after which adopted. Rice-field was developed within an increased style with three check types (IR6, Very-basmati and JP5) during 2006 and 2007. Information was documented about the 18 quantitative characteristics (times to 50% planning, times to readiness, banner leaf length, banner leaf thickness, banner leaf region, plant level, panicle length, complete tillers per plant, effective tiller per plant, limbs per panicle, wheat yield per plant, 1000 grain fat, hay yield per plant, Crop catalog, paddy feed length, paddy feed depth and feed length to depth percentage) and eight qualitative characteristics (Banner leaf position, banner leaf form, banner leaf look, lodging, panicle kind, panicle effort, awning, awn color and seed layer coloring) for 2006 and 2007 respectively.

Statistical Analysis

The price of every personality for several accession was determined and put through mathematical evaluation i.e., Normal deviation, difference, common error utilizing STATISTICA and mathematical application. The Shannon-Weaver range list (H0) utilizing Jain et al. (1975) was determined by examining phenotypic frequencies of the 18 quantitative characteristics during both decades for combined in addition to provincial teams. Multivariate analysis was done using NTSYS PC2.2, Euclidean length was calculated depending on quantitative a well as qualitative characteristics information (Nei, 1987) and centered on length matrix, dendrograms were built for both decades utilizing un-measured combined team arithmetic means. Next multivariate analysis, the theory element analysis (PCA) was also completed to be able to determine the faculties with optimum factor as a whole variety.

Results

Collective response during two years

All eighteen faculties were polymorphic and nearly same pattern was noticed during both developing months on germplasm accessions that are entire. Desk?? Displays the frequency distribution for 18 characteristic as proportion of accessions utilized in study's sum total quantity. Most of the landraces were early in readiness and flowering during 2007 and year 2006 with moderate banner leaf duration. 72.3PERCENT and 67.2PERCENT of the landraces during 2007 and 2006 were high tall. Optimum accessions created 10 to 15 effective tillers per place. Allele for panicle size that is advanced was prominent in landrace genotypes that are Pakistani during both field tests. Most of the accessions confirmed differ large (80%) seed environment proportion during both years. Natural produce and wheat yield confirmed not substantial persistence in field tests. Width and advanced feed length was seen during both years in most of the landraces.

Designs of phenotypic variance in Sindh, Punjab and Northwest Frintier Land

The person figures, varies within their designs of submission in addition to the quantity of variance. Table 3 displays the volume distribution for personal figures whilst the proportion of accessions from each geographic zone's number. The biggest quantity of records was in the Punjab and was displayed by 153 accessions, followed closely by Northwest Frontier land with 11 accessions and 10 accessions from Sindh respectively

Usually, paddy feed width was fairly monomorphic for Sindh state (area III and IV) as just wide feed width was seen in this land although it was polymorphic in different areas. Quantitative characteristics that are leftover were extremely polymorphic in most grain growing areas of Pakistan. While only one% were semi-dwarf seventy-two percentage of the landraces within the entire germplasm selection were discovered to become high within the areas, 26% were of reasonable peak. The selection had mainly moderate leaves of typical duration which submission sample was nearly exactly the same in most the areas. Forty-nine percentage of the landraces had fairly broad leaves, brief while just 10 PERCENT with narrow-leaf and as 37% construction. Leaf edge pubescence, the leaf duration and leaf position were broadly dispersed through the selection. The leaf length's distribution confirmed that, 72% had advanced, while individuals with smaller and fairly longer leaves were 19 and 10. Leaf position and blade pubescence were broadly dispersed through the selection. Exactly the same routine was not followed by the distribution for that quantity of times to mind in most the areas. Within the upper and north western area, the accessions that went early were significantly more than the delayed proceeding kind, within the Westcentral all of the accession dropped in to the advanced quantity of times to 50% proceeding whilst in the west, there more of the late growing accessions compared to early planning types.

Level for characteristics of abundance

Optimum prices for every qualitative characteristic or probably the most plentiful were observed to check on for various faculties in level of variety. Optimum price was shown by the characteristic of flag leaf position with consistency of 37.3% as in 66 genotypes. With consistency of 49.1% lodging was in 87 genotypes. Type was observed in 81 genotypes with consistency of 45.8%. Panicle effort was in consistency proportion 51.4% and abundance with consistency 91. All of the genotypes were observed ‘awned’ during declaration of awning proportion 52.5% and characteristic with consistency 93. Bright with consistency 114 and consistency proportion 64.4% likewise focused the smoothness of awn color. ‘Dark brown’ seed coat color was not most scarce of consistency proportion 36.7% and all with consistency 65.

Correlation coefficient evaluation:

The connection coefficients one of the quantitative characteristics (Table 2) revealed the times to proceeding and times to readiness confirmed clearly optimistic significant relationship with one another was positively linked with the additional faculties except the 100 vegetables weight-which was negatively related with quantity of vegetables per pod. After eager statement of all of the faculties and utilizing various mathematical evaluation, the very best efficiency and genetically varied gene pools were chosen (Table 3) for creating improved genotypes. Times to readiness and times to proceeding confirmed clearly optimistic significant relationship with one another, along with limbs per feed duration and paddy feed duration to width rate. A substantial and clearly optimistic relationship was noticed between panicle size and banner leaf length in addition to plant top. Wheat yield per plant was clearly positively related to effective tiller per place. Correlations and extremely substantial were noticed for maturity leaf width and times to proceeding. Extremely important adverse relationship was also shown by leaf width with feed duration in addition to with effective tillers per place, paddy feed duration to width rate. Extremely important adverse relationship was shown by Paddy feed width with feed duration and paddy feed duration to width rate aswell.

Quotes and evaluation of Range indices

Shannon-Weaver diversity list (H0) for 18 quantitative characteristics was calculated individually for various physical areas and environmental areas and accordingly measured from the quantity of accessions. H0 was projected in three physical grain growing areas for every of the 18 figures. The mean of Shannon range catalog, put over figures within physical areas, diverse from 0.68 for Punjab to 0.61 for Sindh during 2006 during year 2007, it had been 0.62 for Sindh, 0.60 for Punjab and 0.67 for NWFP. For the gathered landraces, no variety was seen in feed width of accessions obtained from Sindh state, the minimal price of H0 was 0.20 for 1000GW and paddy feed duration to width percentage of accessions obtained from NWFP during 2006 although it confirmed only a little elevated in next growing period. Selections from Punjab confirmed least variety in panicle size to planning confirmed minimal variety in accessions obtained from Sindh during both times and decades. The most price was 1.00 by having an overall mean of 0.47, for that characteristic times to proceeding in accessions obtained from Punjab. Variance was inconsistent among all analyzed quantitative factors. Nevertheless, the mean of H0 confirmed an obvious variety for several figures, thinking about the ideals of the pooled over characters within each variable that was classifying. The outcomes of evaluation of difference (ANOVA) in Table 5 confirmed substantial variations for between figures within physical areas and environmental areas. Substantial variations for environmental areas and both physical areas endured just within the leaf edge pubescence. Awning demonstrated substantial difference between environmental areas. 1000-grain weight unveiled factor between physical areas.

Multivariate Analysis centered on Agro- Faculties that are morphological

27 agro-morphological characteristics were examined by multivariate studies utilizing two contrasting methods, specifically, bunch and primary element studies (Sneath and Sokal, 1973). Way of each characteristic were standard just before studies to prevent results because of climbing variations. Euclidean dissimilarity coefficient matrices were used-to expose the designs of innate connection between genotypes having a bunch evaluation done by NTSYS-computer, Type 2.1 bundle (Rohlf, 2005). The outcomes are offered within phenograms' type to infer relationships and also assess and to illustrate the level of morphological likeness.

Evaluation of distance

The Euclidean distance matrix for several 15,487 set-wise evaluations of 174 landraces was beyond the range of its demonstration in form that is tabulated. Nevertheless, a broad selection of genetic length was noticed one of the landraces examined. The rates of Euclidean genetic length prices ranged from 1.9 (between 6655 and 6658) to 14.8 (between 6779 and 6757) during 2006, followed closely by 12.3, 12.2 and 12.1 noticed between 6779 and check selection Tremendous basmati, 6779 and 6556, 6546 and 6757, respectively. The genetic distance between all sets of landraces was 7.02±1.07. Landraces 6779, 6758, 6624, 6745, 6628 and 6626 confirmed optimum length with other landraces. It had been noticed that Euclidean length among groups ranged from 1.09 (cluster-I and cluster-V) to 8.94 (cluster-IV and cluster-V) in germplasm landraces during 2006. During 2007 dissimilarity quotes among 174 landraces ranged between. The typical Euclidean distance between all sets of landraces was 8.45±0.69. 6646 and landraces 6658 were the nearest germplasm landraces, having a length of 6757 and 1.7, 6770 confirmed the most similarity. It had been followed closely by Euclidean length of 14.6, 14.0, 13.2and 13.1 documented in 6546 and 6758, 6757 and 6779, 6546 and 6624, and check selection IR6 and 6779, respectively. Euclidean distance among groups ranged from 2.77 (cluster-I and cluster-two) to 9.01 (cluster-IV and cluster-V).

Group analysis

Group analysis centered on 27 morphological factors split 174 landraces directly into five primary groups (I, to V) at dissimilarity coefficient worth of 11.4 during both growing periods. The dendrogram was built utilizing linkage technique that was total. Bunch-I contains main rice landraces (134 landraces), early in planning (72±10.8), in addition to readiness (116.1±13.5), with medium-grain yield possible (30.7±7.7) and greatest natural produce per place (184.9±58.4). Bunch-two made up of twelve landraces that have been indicated as early-maturing (113.8±13.6 times), lengthy prominence (142.9±21.6 cm), with increased banner leaf region (57.0±21.5), showing optimum quantity of whole (24.3±5.4) in addition to effective (21.4±4.6) tillers per place, optimum crop list (0.3±0.1), greater wheat yield per plant (41.3±13.3) and minimal feed duration (7.2±0.4) and gain duration to thickness percentage (2.5±0.5). This team, likewise incorporate japonica kind check “JP5” to selection. Most of the landraces within this team fit in with Northwest Frontier Province. Cluster III integrated 15 landraces, earliest in planning (79.8±11.9) and readiness (120.9±14.5) with medium-height (153.6±22.0), moderate panicle size (27.8±3.6), reduce natural produce (176.0±51.9), optimum crop catalog, greatest wheat yield per place (43.5±11.2) and slim feed duration to width percentage (4.0±0.8). Bunch-IV also includes fifteen landraces respectively with early heading (67.7±6.4), and maturity (107.2±9.1), smallest period of panicles (22.9±3.1), cheapest garin produce(82.5±8.6) and seed environment proportion(27.0±5.6) while cluster-V includes just one accession early in planning(64 days) in addition to readiness(109 days) with lengthy prominence(183cm),optimum feed duration and duration to width rate. About the foundation of Euclidean length, in 2007, dendrogram recovered the five primary clusters in 2006. The primary variations existed within the fragmentation of their agreement as well as numerous groups. Bunch-I contains main rice landraces (70 landraces), early in planning (70.7±10.4days), in addition to readiness (113.8±12.0days), high plant level(159.8±11.3cm), optimum seed environment proportion(85.1±5.7), Crop catalog(0.2±0.1) and 1000-feed fat (28.8±10.7g) and medium-grain duration (8.4±0.7mm).Cluster-two made up of seventy-five landraces that have been indicated as really early in planning (65.6±8.1days) and readiness (106.7±9.2days), greater crop index (0.2±0.0), higher plant height (152.8±13.8cm), medium-grain yield (27.7±8.1g). Bunch-III incorporated 24 landraces really delayed in times to planning(85.3±10.2days) and readiness(132.8±9.3days), optimum natural produce per plant (268.4±61.7g), minimal wheat yield per plant (27.4±7.0 h).Cluster-IV likewise includes fifteen landraces respectively with minimal banner leaf area (31.4±4.5cm2), smallest plant height (117.5±25.1cm), optimum effective tillers per plant(23.9±6.7), minimal paddy feed length to thickness ratio(3.4±1.0) and cheapest panicle length(23.0±2.2cm) Although cluster-V includes just two landraces having optimum banner leaf region(92.9±50.4cm2), plant level(172.6±14.7cm), panicle length(30.6±3.4cm), paddy feed length(9.1±0.0mm), wheat yield per plant(33.2±8.3g), natural produce per plant (210.0±28.3g) and paddy feed length to thickness ratio(4.5±0.6).

Principal Component Analysis

To be able to evaluate designs of variance, contemplating all of the factors simultaneously did for 177 rice landraces primary element evaluation. It had been noticed that six of the 18 primary elements (computers) by having an Eigen price greater than 1.0, accounted for 72.09 percentage of the sum total variability between the 177 landraces examined during 2006. The coefficients determining six primary aspects of these information receive in Table >???. These coefficients were scaled, so they produced elements and provide correlations between factors. The very first element that is primary had 21.04percent of the sum total variance within the morphological characteristics. Times to planning(0.358), times to readiness(0.388),feed length/width percentage(0.306), paddy feed length(0.206), limbs per panicle (0.142), natural produce per plant(0.266), plant level(0.120) and complete tiller per plant(0.199) led mainly in variance. Alternatively hole leaf duration(-0.138), banner leaf thickness(-0.337), banner leaf region(-0.303), crop list(-0.149), 1000grain fat(-0.057) and paddy feed depth(-0.233) had all negative loads. In year 2007, six of 19 elements with >1.0 eigenvalues, led 70.48percent of the sum total variability present in germplasm landraces (Table ???). Primary element 1 led 19.17percent, while PC2, PC3, PC4, PC5 and PC6 led 13.84percent, 12.82percent, 10.53percent, 8.03percent and 6.11percent, respectively as a whole divergence (Table ????). The very first primary element represented mainly the routine of versions in times to planning(0.374), times to readiness(0.398), plant level(0.076), complete tiller per plant(0.212), effective tiller per plant(0.148), panicle length(0.170), limbs per panicle(0.148), seed environment proportion(0.002), wheat yield per plant(0.121), natural produce per plant(0.274), paddy feed length(0.352) and feed length width rate (0.367). On the other hand, banner leaf duration (-0.123), banner leaf thickness (-0.280), banner leaf region (-0.234), crop list (-0.043), 1000-feed fat (-0.026) and paddy feed width (-0.282) had all negative loads.

Feed duration a variety criterion, to width percentage

Feed duration to width percentage is just a quality measure not and for grain just as much delicate to ecological variations as agronomic characteristics that are additional. The germplasm is split into three main teams; brief, long and moderate. As well as other appealing characteristics about the foundation of seed duration to width percentage, landraces with long-grain required longer time for you to maturity while short-grained landraces required lower period during both years for readiness and proceeding. Long landraces have leaf area during both decades than short-grained landraces having leaf spot that is bigger. Short-grained landraces confirmed biggest crop list during 2006. Proportion of medium grained genotypes among Pakistani landraces was greatest (43PERCENT in 2006 and 46PERCENT in 2007) during both developing years. About the foundation of constant area efficiency during 2006 and 2007 for many quantitative characteristics, several landraces was chosen (Table ????).

Discussion

Genetic variety of crop landraces demands every part of the variety to be investigated. It's essential to quarry fresh genes for harvest enhancement (Iannetta et al., 2007). Preservation of the variety of plants that are landrace is definitely an essential problem due to the degree to which revolution is being declined after by this variety. Assess, to be able to preserve and efficiently use germplasm, degree of genetic selection should be calculated. Only supply of genetic selection may be the germplasm through which the seed breeders create new cultivars (Baranger, 2004). Whilst the qualitative characteristics are under genetic control of two or several alleles of the single-gene with little if any ecological adjustments to hide the gene results e.g seed color, seed form, awning, awn colour etc, therefore no substantial change was seen in qualitative characteristics in next growing period. Quantitative characteristics are financially essential; these have large variability since they're additionally managed by several gene and may be properly used for that harvest enhancement (Amurrio et al., 1995; Drop et al., 2003). In rice landraces data for 2007 and 2006 confirmed large level of variance for several these 18 faculties are straight or ultimately deliver surrounding and genetically extremely important for that choice of high-yielding genotypes. Times to proceeding in one single review on Bangladesh rice landraces ranged from 78 times to 109 times (Bisne and Sarawgi 2008). The variance for times to readiness and proceeding might be related to periodic variations. Shah. (1999) mentioned the starting of the spikelet depends mainly about the existing atmospheric heat, the light-intensity along with other climatic conditions. Flag leaf spot using its position may be the most significant personality by which optimum photosynthesis is happened. Leaf spot has got the optimum contribution towards wheat yield.

Compared industrial varieties genotypes were fairly higher in size with. This can be a common function of landraces, which shine within their capability to aid panicle development by base reserve mobilization that is big. Several small statured outlines were recognized which may be more employed to create lodging tolerant and manure receptive rice varieties. Width and leaf length will also be essential faculties to become regarded due to the factor in activities. There is at early growth-stage a bigger leaf spot improvement regarded as an appealing personality for greater stay institution, which fundamentally influence the yield amount. With leaf region, 7 accessions were recognized within this germplasm significantly more than square. The 1000 Feed fat is among the produce factors that are most significant. General 18 accessions were chosen having significantly more than 40g fat during both years. These point check be utilized to enhance seed weight-which eventually boost the yield amount. Produce don't influence within this atmosphere, the explanation for that is not known. Extremely good correlations were likewise between paddy feed length-width percentage, paddy feed duration and readiness and proceeding period, banner leaf dimension and plant level. There is also its own element faculties such as for instance, complete tiller per plant and substantial beneficial connection between wheat produce tiller per plant, etc. It was likewise noticed that landraces from upper hilly places e.g Malakand and Swat, get wide grains and smaller. This might feature towards the proven fact that feed duration reduces with escalation in elevation (Siddiqui et al., 2007). Although the feed duration decreased the escalation because it confirmed a growing pattern with escalation in elevation in thickness paid for feed quantity to amass the feed fat, although additional facets will also be active in the grain filling. These results claim that Pakistan grain cultivars use a unique relationship when it comes to distribution for grain morphology.

Times to panicle and proceeding size confirmed large polymorphism in Punjab selection although it NWFP province and was relatively lower. The reason why for this distinction will be the samplesize from NWFP and Sindh, which can be as a result of slim genetic history because of domestication, player option and populace food choices of just several grain types with particular faculties. Main applications for grain enhancement completed with respect to Punjab this can be the reason behind big selections with wide genetic history can be found below.

Various clustering studies and PCAs spread piece uncovered that there's lots of genetic selection one of the analyzed genotypes as well as unearthed that quantitative characteristics may also be utilized like a producer in-breeding plan but there is no regional affiliation since the genotypes in one spot come right into several groups. Alternatively, as was decided not just by ecological difference-but also by genotypes from various regional roots were fairly distinctive and are usually grouped. The groups didn't always contain all of the landraces in the same sites though primary element evaluation arranged genotypes as well as higher morphological parallels. The landraces were arranged based on their morphological likeness and never because of physical source. Gupta. (1991) noted that genetic selection in mustard wasn't associated with physical distribution of the germplasm, as outlines from various geographical areas were put within the same bunch. Likewise, Amurrio ETAL. (1995) noticed that group designs of pea landraces didn't reveal physical source.

General our results confirmed that rice landraces investigated from Pakistan harbor an extensive selection of genetic variance. For particular faculties that'll possess some possible worth in grain breeding plans, numerous encouraging collections have now been recognized in the current research.

Desk: Primary elements for morpho- traits of rice landrace during 2006

Characteristic

PC1

PC2

PC3

PC4

PC5

PC6

PC1

PC2

PC3

PC4

PC5

PC6

Eigenvalue

3.79

2.57

2.17

1.81

1.5

1.15

3.45

2.49

2.31

1.89

1.44

1.1

Eigenvalue that is collective

3.79

6.36

8.52

10.33

11.83

12.98

3.45

5.94

8.25

10.14

11.59

12.69

Percentage of difference

21.04

14.28

12.03

10.05

8.31

6.38

19.17

13.84

12.82

10.53

8.03

6.11

Final difference

21.04

35.32

47.35

57.4

65.71

72.09

19.17

33.01

45.83

56.35

64.38

70.48

Eigenvectors(2006)

Eigenvectors(2007)

DH

0.358

0.067

0.198

0.015

0.288

-0.016

0.374

-0.177

0.112

-0.099

-0.317

0.044

DM

0.388

0.011

0.204

0.121

0.233

-0.076

0.398

-0.183

0.03

-0.191

-0.252

0.084

FLL

-0.138

-0.189

0.378

-0.299

-0.314

0.073

-0.123

-0.462

-0.105

0.143

0.248

0.156

FLW

-0.337

-0.096

0.203

-0.07

0.11

-0.258

-0.28

-0.297

-0.131

0.075

-0.116

-0.039

FLA

-0.303

-0.183

0.394

-0.256

-0.153

-0.125

-0.234

-0.503

-0.142

0.147

0.118

0.087

PH

0.12

-0.196

0.408

-0.145

-0.04

0.353

0.076

-0.411

-0.142

-0.01

0.087

-0.139

TT/G

0.199

0.428

0.072

-0.083

-0.438

-0.05

0.212

-0.071

0.426

-0.084

0.385

0.042

Rehabilitation/G

0.212

0.437

0.063

-0.056

-0.413

-0.053

0.148

-0.076

0.443

-0.02

0.434

0.061

PL

0.206

0.009

0.158

-0.057

-0.065

0.467

0.17

-0.188

0.076

0.001

0.173

-0.459

W/G

0.142

0.021

0.305

-0.01

0.319

-0.012

0.148

-0.261

-0.07

-0.056

-0.281

-0.193

SS(percentage)

0.058

0.117

0.076

-0.299

0.322

-0.348

0.002

-0.036

0.129

0.16

-0.338

0.508

GY/G

0.034

0.304

0.047

-0.446

0.245

0.067

0.121

-0.127

0.331

0.433

-0.239

-0.164

BY/G

0.266

-0.064

0.292

0.217

-0.046

-0.196

0.274

-0.184

-0.025

-0.329

-0.07

0.037

HELLO

-0.149

0.309

-0.177

-0.466

0.213

0.203

-0.043

0.014

0.322

0.571

-0.179

-0.173

1000GW

-0.057

-0.077

-0.075

0.098

0.145

0.58

-0.026

0.126

-0.135

-0.034

-0.073

-0.593

GL

0.293

-0.293

-0.12

-0.209

-0.054

-0.084

0.352

0.004

-0.291

0.194

0.053

0.013

GB

-0.233

0.311

0.279

0.298

0.122

0.049

-0.282

-0.137

0.302

-0.33

-0.224

-0.102

GL/GB

0.306

-0.331

-0.253

-0.309

-0.096

-0.084

0.367

0.106

-0.325

0.316

0.167

0.083

Desk: Basic Data for 177 rice landraces for 18 characteristics in 2006

Year-2006

Year-2007

Characteristic

Mean±SE

Minimum

Max

resume(%)

Difference

Mean±SE

Minimum

Max

resume(%)

Difference

DH

72.4±0.81

48

99

14.9

117.0

70.4±0.85

43

97

15.8

129.3

DM

115.7±1.01

85

145

11.6

179.8

113.2±1.02

80

145

11.9

184.5

FLL

45.5±0.60

29.2

72.0

17.6

64.2

44.3±0.67

21.5

79.3

20.0

78.5

FLW

1.8±0.02

1.3

2.6

15.8

0.1

1.7±0.02

1.1

2.5

14.9

0.1

FLA

63.2±1.2

33.3

130.2

25.7

263.2

58.3±1.20

26.2

128.6

27.5

257.0

PH

156.9±1.11

92.4

198.6

9.4

216.4

156.0±1.09

93.0

187.0

9.3

211.6

TT/G

16.6±0.32

10.4

36.5

25.8

18.2

15.3±0.34

8.6

35.2

29.8

20.7

Rehabilitation/G

14.1±0.30

8.2

30.5

28.5

16.2

13.6±0.31

7.9

32.0

30.3

16.9

PL

26.8±0.28

13.3

47.7

14.0

14.1

24.9±0.32

12.4

48.5

17.0

18.0

W/G

14.7±0.28

9.6

34.2

25.6

14.3

13.1±0.36

7.4

35.6

36.6

22.8

SS%

83.1±0.49

63.0

93.0

7.8

42.2

83.9±0.50

58.6

99.9

7.9

44.2

GY/G

32.3±0.71

16.4

70.1

29.3

89.5

29.2±0.76

8.9

66.8

34. 4

101.0

BY/G

180.1±4.36

100

380

32.2

3370.5

200.3±4.11

120

390

27.3

2984.7

HELLO

0.20±0.01

0.05

0.63

41.6

0.01

0.15±0.00

0.03

0.44

40.3

0.00

1000GW

27.1±0.72

13.7

60.9

35.2

91.1

27.1±0.76

12.6

63.6

37.2

101.4

PGL

8.5±0.06

6.4

10.4

9.5

0.65

8.4±0.06

6.6

10.1

9.2

0.59

PGB

2.3±0.03

1.6

3.2

15.2

0.12

2.3±0.03

1.7

3.3

14.8

0.12

GL/GB

3.8±0.05

2.1

5.9

19.1

0.52

3.7±0.05

2.2

5.2

18.3

0.45

Desk: Organization of feed traits with additional quantitative characteristics in rice germplasm

Variety organizations (Year 2006)

Variety organizations (Year 2007)

Faculties

Brief

Medium

Long

Brief

Medium

Long

DH

70.82±1.75

71.34±1.06

73.67±1.46

67.63±1.63

69.12±1.03

72.60±1.67

DM

111.92±2.38

115.3±1.46

117.33±1.65

108.16±2.09

112.53±1.34

116.19±1.88

FLL

45.41±1.92

46.05±0.77

45.48±0.98

44.32±1.97

45.37±0.81

43.50±1.16

FLW

1.99±0.06

1.82±0.03

1.75±0.03

1.85±0.04

1.72±0.02

1.67±0.03

FLA

69.45±4.08

63.90±1.58

60.95±1.83

62.81±3.19

59.73±1.56

55.62±2.09

PH

153.70±2.38

158.18±1.52

158.72±1.66

152.35±2.17

159.10±1.51

155.88±1.66

TT/G

17.56±1.24

16.35±0.41

16.38±0.46

15.65±1.12

14.84±0.40

15.58±0.60

Rehabilitation/G

15.02±1.11

13.85±0.39

13.93±0.45

14.46±1.03

13.19±0.37

13.53±0.52

PL

25.41±0.63

26.96±0.41

27.37±0.46

23.5±0.55

25.38±0.46

25.19±0.58

W/G

14.80±0.52

15.20±0.43

14.19±0.48

12.29±0.5

13.19±0.41

13.23±0.82

SS(%)

83.03±1.33

82.2±0.76

83.87±0.73

84.37±1.31

83.72±0.70

83.91±0.87

GY/G

33.64±2.22

31.13±0.98

32.88±1.12

28.53±2.09

28.13±1.02

30.77±1.31

BY/G

170.71±11.61

181.06±6.64

183.38±6.93

185.5±8.53

198.7±6.19

210±7.08

HELLO

0.22±0.02

0.18±0.01

0.19±0.01

0.16±0.01

0.15±0.01

0.15±0.01

1000GW

28.86±2.11

25.80±1.09

27.88±1.06

27.02±1.77

26.34±1.13

28.07±1.30

GL

7.34±0.12

8.41±0.07

8.92±0.06

7.19±0.05

8.47±0.06

8.80±0.06

GB

2.86±0.05

2.33±0.02

2.04±0.01

2.91±0.03

2.33±0.02

2.06±0.01

GL/GB

2.61±0.10

3.62±0.03

4.37±0.03

2.48±0.04

3.63±0.02

4.26±0.02

No. of Landraces

28

75

71

30

81

63

Table 3: Chosen germplasm accessions of nearby grain about the foundation of efficiency that is greatest in essential agro - feed and morphological traits during seasons 2006

Characteristic

Range

Accessions Recognized

Times to maturity

< 100 times,

6560, 6570, 6621, 6655, 6675, 6685, 6731, 6734, 6746, 6746, 6754,6755, 6756, 6757, 6758

Flag leaf size/region

> cm2

6595, 6542, 6629, 6636, 6724, 6725, 6779

Plant height

<130 cm

6680, 6564, 6626

Effective tillers/place

> 20 tillers

6527, 6550, 6551, 6556, 6557, 6558, 6623, 6624, 6626, 6738, 6744, 6754, 6757, 6758

Length

> 30 cm

6524, 6537, 6538, 6562, 6563, 6565, 6569, 6590, 6744, 6760, 6779

Spikelets /panicle

> 18 spike lets

6526, 6527, 6550, 6556, 6557, 6558, 6564, 6623, 6624, 6626, 6629, 6731, 6738, 6744, 6757, 6758

Wheat yield/place

> 40 h

6520, 6523, 6550, 6559, 6559, 6585, 6620, 6623, 6624, 6628, 6633, 6645, 6651, 6654, 6683, 6712, 6755

1000-grain weight

> 40 h

6506, 6522, 6525, 6538, 6547, 6581,6615 ,6645, 6651, 6666, 6667, 6668, 6675, 6676, 6771, 6672, 6672, 6720

Feed size

? 10-mm

6505

9

Faculties

DF

DM

PH

PL

FLL

FLW

LA

TT/G

Rehabilitation/G

SS%

BY/G

GL

GW

HELLO

W/G

GL/GB

1000GW

GY/G

2006

0.70

1.18

0.14

0.65

0.73

0.63

1.28

1.10

0.66

1.37

1.30

0.91

0.72

1.13

0.72

0.47

0.72

1.30

2007

0.65

1.35

0.14

0.77

0.80

0.70

1.16

1.10

0.74

1.33

1.46

0.79

0.62

0.93

0.52

0.52

0.79

1.33

PUNJAB

DH

DM

FLL

FLW

FLA

PH

GY/G

W/G

SS%

PL

PTP

TTP

BY/G

HELLO

1000GW

GL

GB

GL/GB

Mean±SE

2006

1.00

0.96

0.52

0.74

0.56

0.43

0.92

0.52

0.99

0.38

0.79

0.49

0.90

0.91

0.51

0.56

0.44

0.76

0.68±0.05

2007

1.00

0.85

0.53

0.63

0.53

0.44

0.88

0.33

0.83

0.35

0.75

0.73

0.97

0.25

0.53

0.48

0.38

0.37

0.60±0.05

SINDH

2006

0.32

0.50

0.63

0.80

0.80

0.50

0.94

0.32

0.94

0.50

0.64

0.32

0.94

0.50

0.89

0.50

0.00

0.90

0.61±0.06

2007

0.27

0.42

0.53

0.79

0.54

0.51

0.86

0.54

1.00

0.42

0.54

0.51

0.97

1.00

0.75

0.67

0.00

0.92

0.62±0.05

NWFP

2006

0.89

0.50

0.50

0.68

0.60

0.44

1.00

0.43

0.62

0.40

0.82

0.82

0.82

0.68

0.20

0.38

0.38

0.20

0.57±0.05

2007

0.88

0.80

0.61

0.83

0.69

0.53

0.74

0.55

0.83

0.38

1.00

1.00

0.94

0.67

0.38

0.52

0.60

0.24

0.67±0.05

Literature Reviewed:

2006, Atlin, G.N. H.R. D. M. M. B.. Developing

Grain cultivars for large-fertility upland methods within the tropics. Field Crop

Res. 97.

1995, Amurrio, J.M. A.M. A.C.. Taxonomy of Iberian pea

Landraces centered on qualitative and quantitative figures. Euphytica. 82.

2000, Louette, D.. Conventional administration of seed range: what's a landrace? Pp.

109-142 in Genes within the Area: On-plantation Preservation of Plant Selection (S.B. Wash,

ed.). USA, and Lewis Publishers, IPGRI, IDRC.

1975, Harlan, J.R.. Plants and person. American Culture of Agronomy Science Society of

Madison, America USA.

Virk PS, Honda-Lloyd, BV., Jackson, MT., Pooni HS, Clemeno TP and Newbury T (1996)

Forecasting quantitative difference within almond germplasm using markers.

S.E., Smith, M. Guarino. Al. Doss. Conta. 1995. Morphological

Affinities among Middle Eastern alfalfas accessions from Oman. Harvest

35: 1118-1194, Technology.

A., Ghafoor, Z. Ahmad. Hashmi. Bashir. 2003. On based diversity

agronomic characteristics and SDS PAGE guns with regards to regional structure of

blackgram [Vigna mungo (M.) Hepper]. Log of Reproduction Genetics &, 57: 5-14.

L., Zhu, R.G. Li. Wu. 1998. Analysis of Oriental W simply. campestris. Biol.

Divers..

Virk Newbury Jackson Honda- 1995, Lloyd, B.V.. The recognition of

Duplicate accessions inside a rice germplasm selection using analysis.

Theor.Appl.Genet. 90, 1049- 1055.

Virk, P.S. Honda-Lloyd, M.T. Jackson. Pooni. Clemeno Newbury. 1996.

Forecasting quantitative difference within almond germplasm using markers.

Genetics 76:296-304.

Harlan. Plants and person. American Culture of Agronomy Science Society of

Madison, America USA.

Allard. 1999. Concepts of plant breeding. Edition. Inc. New & Sons, John Willey

York.

N, Louette. 2000. Conventional administration of seed range: what's a landrace? Pp.

109-142 in Genes within the Area: On-plantation Preservation of Plant Selection (S.B. Wash,

ed.). USA, and Lewis Publishers, IPGRI, IDRC.

T, Zhu. 1996. DNA. A PhD Thesis of

John Innes Centre, East Anglia, UK.

Characteristic

Figure

Punjab

Sindh

NWFP

Characteristic

Figure

Punjab

Sindh

NWFP

Flag leaf position

Erect

39.87

30

9.09

Awn color

No awn

35.29

20

Advanced

27.45

70

90.9

White

60.78

80

100

Outside

20.26

Light brown

1.31

Descending

12.42

Brown

0.65

Flag leaf form

Erect

39.87

40

9.09

Brownish

0.65

Semi-erect

40.52

60

90.9

Red

1.31

Stale

19.61

Seed coat color

White

5.88

Appearance

Narrow

24.84

90.9

Light brown

33.33

10

9.09091

Advanced

75.16

100

9.09

Speckled brown

9.15

40

Wide

0.00

Brown

32.03

50

90.9091

Lodging

Lodging that is large

39.87

90

9.09

Red

3.27

Lodging that is minor

49.02

90.9

Variable pink

8.50

Missing

11.11

10

Pink

0.00

Type

Small

49.02

20

27.3

Red brown

7.84

Advanced

5.88

10

63.6

Panicle effort

Effectively applied

52.94

60

27.2727

Available

45.10

70

9.09

Somewhat applied

14.38

40

63.6364

Awning

Awned

56.86

50

9.09

Simply applied

22.22

Awnletted

9.15

30

54.5

Partially applied

10.46

9.09091

Awnless

33.99

20

36.4

Closed

0.00

9