English and lithuanian punctuation


The scientific researchers of any worlds constantly lured. Anatomy, the character and mind had the various branches of science including medicine, physics and philosophy. The evaluation of a terminology was likewise among the most famous departments of study of grammarians and the linguists of the fifteenth-century. The curiosity about variant and the growth of a vocabulary, and its buildings introduced to the planet the newest strategies examining the written and verbal varieties of any vocabulary: syntax, phonetics, the phonology and semantics. In the beginning of the fifteenth-century, the students dedicated to the analysis of their diction as well as sounds. Linguists and the phoneticians analysed the source of consonants and vowels, their construction as well as the relationships proffering ideas that were distinct about using these. Several years after, their emphasis switched to the evaluation of a communicating, essentially, orally stated vocabulary. They gave birth. Studying the vocabulary as the adjustable program of their mixtures and sounds, the researchers considered that oral demonstration of a vocabulary can be broken up into smaller components, that have been recognized using the help of reading. Additionally, this section can help reveal the reason for thinking expressed showing the right use of an idea in a sentence, but furthermore suggesting the disposition of a loudspeaker system.

On the other hand, the developing demands as well as the sixteenth-century of the texts that were created, produced the students to recognize the vocabulary was mo-Re sophisticated program of communicating. The scientific researchers were encumbered by the sway of a cathedral. Thus, the linguists needed to focus perhaps not just about the construction of a word and its connection in a section; in addition they needed uncover strategy to in-breathe the feelings to the composed reflections of ideas, the developed phrases on the document may get exactly the same tuning as it had been generated orally in a dialogue. So that you can accomplish this objective

Inspirational foundation of the research. The grammarians compensated fantastic focus on the phonology, grammar, format, the construction of a phrase in the created and verbal types. They found the verbal framework of thinking cared equivalent need for the one creatively offered. Also, the experts recognized that impact that was reasonable was created to the knowledge of a text or a notion. They considered the punctuation was the foundation maybe not just in the id of a manner of a text introduced, but in addition in the specs of the intent behind a sentence. So that you can comprehend the function of indicating along with the usage, punctuation was analysed by the boffins . Therefore, the punctuation was broken up in to two practices: lexical and the rhetorical.

The composition and the many significant job performed in any type of communicating. The grammarians supposed that writing turned out to be a foundation stone in the scientific discipline of rhetoric. They introduced a hypothesis that the great text or a section relied on three parts: “clear considering, studying the greatest & most strenuous authors; and regular exercise written down, in addition to cautious sharpening of what we've written.” ( Meiklejohn J. 1915:175) put simply, the great display of a text, particularly a notion portrayed in composed or verbal kind, counted around the right and regarded construction of a sentence. Verbal language was, seen by the linguists, on the opposite multichannel occasion that protected lots of repetitive info.”, as a multimodal (Dawnkings J. Breathing, Syntax, and Appropriate Punctuation 1925:1) According to them, individuals altered the high level of talk; modulated the tuning, getting their words to grow or to drop at the same time as utilizing the actions, body gestures and looks. Added advice was supplied by these activities around the concept created. The linguists additionally presumed the punctuation was indicated with assist of toss, tuning and pauses. Afterwards, the job was taken by these systems in the lexical section of a phrase. Tuning in composed texts functioned as “a control of significance” supplying “more text advice to the reader.” ( Flippo R.F. Punctuationand tuning outcomes about the understanding of texts 2001:133). Toss, however, suggested the emotional-state of a loudspeaker system. Dropping or increasing tone of any phrase voiced revealed the emotions of a communicator the shout, either rage, order or warring. Actions and the human anatomy vocabulary furthermore helped in the knowledge of a notion indicated.

Lexical convention of punctuation dropped oral routes and these visual departing lexical constructions and simply phrases to bring the ” (Dawnkings J. 1925:2) The lexical punctuation was put to use as program of symbols that divided or joined the phrases, phrases or their components. The linguists supposed a loudspeaker or author was accountable for this particular activity as well as the primary perform of the marks was presenting a proper significance of a notion. On the other hand, the grammarians shortly recognized the open-handed guidelines of punctuation perhaps not merely supplied the independence of an author to state their ideas in the construction they needed; often, the viewers were directed by this approach to punctuating texts in to the indecisiveness. Even though, the grammarians attempted presenting and describe the grammatical principles in the most straightforward manner as you are able, pupils yet along with lots of people faced by means of the problems in punctuating a text or any phrase. Thus, the curiosity about the punctuation as apparatus that is intonational articulating the looked at the originating problems examining the word from architectural standpoint in both dialects British as well as a created vocabulary and Lithuanian dialects have shaped the inspiration foundation of the re-search.

Distinct teams of linguists recognized the concept of the punctuation otherwise. Types analysed the marks as the mark of the feeling or emotional-state of an author or a reader and targeted around the intonational element of the word. The others considered that indicating contains the stringent, occasionally called dogmatic principles which may break up the phrase for the additional evaluation that was graphic. From these views the conventional (rhetorical) and contemporary (lexical) theories of the punctuation seemed.

Even though, the conventional standpoint of punctuation dropped the consideration in the start of sixteenth-century, a growing number of the grammarians decided to concentrate their consideration to the evaluation of the writing from your rhetorical standpoint, also to training in this manner of instructing the syntax, particularly punctuation, focusing around the fluency and the seem of thinking, in the place of the framework or rigorous sequence of what. These were of the view that fluency and the abundance of any text was supplied throughout the way as well as the tuning to reach that goal punctuation that is right was needed. It might appear the lexical stage of view had the identical perform: supply the fluency of texts or the ideas and to suggest a phrase. Nevertheless, advanced perspective of punctuation focused to the construction of a word. A text broken up in to their components, phrases, as well as components. It signaled the ending of thinking introduced in phrase or first; supplies the basic advice in regards to a particular sort of a phrase for example declarative, positive, or query. While standpoint offered while studying aloud or in quiet the phrase examining its indicated grammatical examination recognized the word in to components.

The intention behind the research-paper tries both: the launch of the punctuation in the conventional and contemporary factors of perspectives as well as the comparative evaluation of punctuation marks comma and dashas properly as their connections against the construction and significance of a word of the texts in Language and Lithuanian languages.

For achieving the goal the primary jobs are:

  • to expose a reader to the important tendencies of punctuation
  • to gather the scientific data defined with all the version of the punctuation and its particular use of principles to the initial texts and their translations
  • to evaluate and evaluate the device as well as using the punctuation marks of both languages: Lithuanian and English

To be able to satisfy the investigation, the interpretive, analytic and relative approaches are put to use. The research of analytic procedure can be used for the evaluation of medical literature resources associated with its improvement, the punctuation as well as the issue of its own use. The use of approaches that are interpretive is not unnecessary for the display of thoughts and different facets . The relative approach offers the chance to differentiate the various features of punctuation marks found in the texts of medical and belles lettres types.

Books evaluation. Examining the punctuation it seemed that in introducing a word turned out to be a space that was “ the first-ever employed symbol.” Its function was to suggest a brief pause between what both in written or verbal varieties. In addition, it had a number of modifications such as the growth of new ideas on its perform although rhetoric was an old technology of talking. Determining the rhetoric, it may be stated this technology proved to be something of five principles: “inventio, dispositio, elocutio, memoria and pronuntiatio.” (Nauck?nait? 2000: 12) These principles functioned as the leading lines to the right and obvious means of a talk offered. , however, modernists and the classicists of rhetoric analysed the texts in accordance with such five principles, they expressed various views about the connection from communicating and a loudspeaker. The classicists considered while the primary aim of rhetoric was to convince the hearer the head was the many significant attribute in a person. The fans of the rhetoric that was present day, to the contrary, said the substantial portion in a person was the emotions. The reflection of emotions found in the conversation supplied the shared knowing involving the hearer as well as the loudspeaker. Centering around the connection of hearer and presenter, the modernists received on a decision

P0a0ssing years, On the other hand, produced the linguists to understand the modifications that were important . Many found the rhetoric grew to become utilized an index of stylistics. Meiklejohn observed the rhetoric as “the artwork of placing phrases collectively.”(Meiklejohn J. M. D. British Syntax, its background and books 1915: 175) He said that “a text needs to be introduced apparent, defined and graphic. “(1915: 175) To make this happen, the author needed to be familiar with syntax, syntax, as well as the particularity of terminology and its particular clearness. The marks were offered by rhetorical strategy of punctuation . “ was attributed by the definition of of tuning to an easy method for communicating info in language that will be separate of their sounds as well as the language.” (Nolan F. 2006:1) in Accordance With Francis Nolan, the tuning carried through a few jobs in studying terminology. Tuning “indicated framework that was lexical, […] mirrored the info construction of an utterance, highlight parts of value.” (2006:1) The punctuation marks, utilized in the area rhetoric investigation, supplied a readers the stylistically presented text. In the writing, the punctuation marks suggested the toss (start or the ending of the phrase), t One (the feeling or disposition of a loudspeaker), and breaks (the duration of moment, employed between what). Each symbol had its function, including showing a buy, a petition or control. In simple terms, punctuation supplied graphic and normal utterance to a readers. Use of a particular punctuation largely counted about the type a sentence offered or the text. For this reason, it may possibly be supposed that the rhetoric was additionally led to by stylistics. Understanding the design or genre of a composed text (when it had been medical, belles-characters or article) it was simple to find a special arrangement of the phrases, which characterized the punctuation. A text, composed to the goal that is technological, had mo-Re complex framework of punctuation as opposed to belles-characters. Unemotional lingo, lengthy complicated phrases and vocabulary that was real described the medical fashion, where the punctuation marks that were fundamental were colon, semi colon and comma. To the contrary, the belles- composition as well as design supplied more generous indicating program of a text utilizing the numbers of talk for example parenthesis, similes. These numbers of talk and the part of a colouring frequently performed.

Župerka K. in his work Stilistika revealed the punctuation as something of a rhetoric, where what supplied the mental color of a phrase as well as the symbols just suggested the feeling of the loudspeaker. Walker J., But supplied an alternative reason of punctuation. In accordance with him, punctuation turned out to be something of maxims that appeared ” from feature of the dwelling words, from a particular superb accession to the senesce of language, of which no report was taken by syntax, and from the understanding of tranquility in the hearing.” (Walker J. A rhetorical syntax 1829:40) This type of approach supplied the fundamental description of the forecast of a symbol. So that you can present the real tuning, utilized in created text or any dialogue, the authors targeted about the air of a notion, in the place of about the right framework of a word. They needed to save your self the organic fluency of phrases and phrases generated in the texts that were composed, thus, nearly all of authors dedicated to the intonational element of a phrase. Tuning, particularly the rising hues, performed in the dedication of a word sort as the signs of feelings of the information and also a loudspeaker.

To the format the punctuation belonged from structural viewpoint - “ the manifestation of ideas as well as an apparatus of the conversation, introduced by means of composed or colloquial terminology. (Labutis V. Lietuvi? kalbos sintaks? 2002: 7) Showing punctuation as a “device of the syntax”( Šar?evi? 1997:179), the grammarians and linguists focused about the practical structure of indicating a sentence. The marks functioned as the indexes of a text or the phrase. They split or united unique elements of the models that were entire, or a word, indicated the ending of idea or the start. Additional perform of the symbols was to present a right, clear and psychological sentences as they'd be created on account of all special details like tuning, t One or message in dental conversation utilized in quiet studying. Mcelroy J. offered the punctuation as something “finally commanded from the concepts of building or idea that relied up on the use just in terms of the use actually symbolized these regulations of believed and building.”(Mcelroy 1878:1) He supposed the selection of punctuation marks and their amount found in a text was “an issue of taste” and counted on an author. Even though, certainly introduced concept of the open-handed punctuation provided the originators the liberty of texts, the written text framework was also affected by it and wrongly utilized punctuation, which wrongly translated significance of a notion and allow audience or hearer to the indecisiveness. Thus, the definite and stringent guidelines of punctuation changed the freedom of an author to select the punctuating symbols in accordance with his POV, in Language syntax.

Examining Lithuanian, on contrary, it may possibly be mentioned the contemporary punctuation employed and of the vocabulary were educated as a stringent system of the principles, suggesting of punctuating a text just how. Current re-search, But offered a inclination of the use of ” (Spingyt? M. 2010:3)Spingyt? M. said that “this freedom supplied to the author a chance to appropriate the mental pounds of a sentence.” (2010:3) It turned out to be a pick of an author to indicate or highlight a particular phrase or component of a sentence, which, in accordance with him, may possibly involve some added or powerful significance. Nevertheless, there proved to be possible that the capabilities of marks that are different may possibly adversely impact. The punctuation guidelines that were open-handed reduced the unique purpose of every punctuation tag, departing an author to determine which tagging was not worse to be utilized. It may possibly be said the punctuation that was generous targeted mo-Re to the tuning in the place of lexical construction of the phrase. This decision is dependant on an evaluation of studying that was quiet, that has been mo-Re affected from the visible use of t One and tuning, and not as many- from the construction that was lexical.

The scientific data of the research. The major sources of the bachelors document are chosen in the functions: Phrase of the Communicative Operate of Terminology in Punctuation by Spingyt? M; Launch to Theoretical Linguistics by Lyons J, as well as the Forsyte sagaby Galsworthy J. The illustrations utilized in the evaluation of the marks are chosen from Launch to the Forsyte fable as well as Linguistics, as well as their translations to the terminology.

The construction of the research. The bachelors document is made from two primary areas, the opening, findings along with the mentions of the operates employed. The first portion of the re-search features the reader to both theories of the use as well as the punctuation in the various areas of study. The first part includes the evaluation of the punctuation marks in the conventional and contemporary factors of see, i.e. the research of punctuation marks from rhetorical and lexical subjects, as well as their sway to the significance of a circumstance.

The second portion of the research-paper offers the evaluation comparing the special punctuation signifies in Lithuanian and British dialects like splash, comma and hyphen, utilized in the texts of medical and belles lettres types. The amounts, introduced in the part that was second were utilized to suggest the distributed of the use as well as the functions.

Component I

The important tendencies of punctuation

Punctuation is an inseparable component of spoken or written language. The marks, which functioned merely on the first day of the century as indexes of the elocution affected other components of research: now and grammar extensively analysed area the programming.

Through generations, the shaped ideas of the use as well as the objective of punctuation marks fascinated scientific researchers and the specialists of any terminology. The grammarians like Daines and Puttenham were the primary people who supplied The Arte of Poesie and Anglicana to the categorization of the Language punctuation marks in the rhetorical viewpoint within their functions. The primary objective was to provide, a minimum of, the fundamental sequence of marks, that have been overlooked in the functions of a dozen millennium. The largest value was to get to the Bill Manley, who supplied its evaluation and systemized the punctuation. This strategy of the punctuation was utilized till first of the 1900s. However, the Manley's investigation hadn't supplied an unique use of symbols; the authors utilized “commas with each subordinate term and separable phrase.”(Encyclopaedia Britannica Punctuation in English since 16002008:85) Thus, examining the texts of the mid and early modern British, the excessive use of the comma generally can be found in these texts.

After years brought more evaluation of the marks. The grammarians structuralised the marks in accordance with capabilities or their function and labeled. Punctuation became a significant portion of any text of coherence and construction. The more profound investigation of the writing resurrected the curiosity of grammarians in punctuation not merely but of lexical at the same time. Punctuation became significant aspect of syntax for the right comprehension of significance of a word along with the manifestation of ideas. It did conduce to create a created vocabulary far better, by showing with higher accuracy and definiteness feelings, the thoughts of a writer.” (Wilson J. A treatise on English 1856: 2) the primary purpose of the authors was to in breathe psychological sway and the exact same intonational phrase to the texts, that has been employed in verbal conversation and the language.

1.1. Rhetorical custom of punctuation

Rhetoric was the earliest technology that analysed a vocabulary in the view that is verbal. Understood to be “the Artwork of Persuasion”and “arty usage of terminology with regard to visual effects”(Jonge C. 2008:49), rhetoric additionally functioned as the guide to improve pronunciation and beat, found in talking or the address demonstrations. (Walker J. 1829: 2) Tuning, message, the period of interruption, every one of these components were categorized as significant characteristics found in straightforward communicating or showing a talk. Furthermore, they don't just offered a vocabulary in addition they supplied added details about the address as well as the presenter himself. The rhetoricians considered these elements of [were] not mental: the beat of the relationship as well as the sound phrases produced.” (Tredinnick M. Composing good 2008: 14) In simple terms, that they had the skill to alter the significance of a word generated, when the message or tone was employed wrong.

Considering that the conversation that is mouth was the primary person action to the evaluation of a vocabulary as a subject that is separate, rhetoric needed to bring two features: to improve the prosody of verbal vocabulary and also presenting the fundamental syntax, in this instance- punctuation. The rhetoricians said that the address of any fashion supplied to crowd had to answer five fundamental concerns, also referred to as cannons: a) inventio, b) dispositio, c) elocutio, d) memoria and e) pronuntiatio.” (Nauck?nait? 2000: 12) All the rules had special function which was required so that you can convey the ideas incorrect and wonderful way of talking.

  1. Identify and Inventio was employed to collect the content associated with the subject. The loudspeaker needed to stipulate the data written down an address utilized.
  2. The enunciation was stood for by the definition of dispositio. Its goal was to team the components of terminology rationally.
  3. Elocutio (fashion) functioned as the index of a presentation introduced. It had been put to use as directing point distinguishing a manner of the right lexical use of terminology and also the created text.
  4. Memoria (memorization). Each language, offered to the crowd, must be learned by heart.
  5. Pronuntiatio (talking). The objective of the rule was presenting the address incorrect mode of actions and connection. To be able to communicate the right significance of thinking a loudspeaker had to cover awareness of the tuning, toss, t One of the talking words, particularly; a loudspeaker system, aside from your connection had a need to make use of the expressions that persuaded this is of a

The rhetoricians considered this, being right utilized, these rules can present an ideal development of function that is verbal or created. But rhetoric was utilized maybe not no more than the elocution, in addition, it entailed the real period of shift of an idea into a term. To put it differently, the deafening or quiet studying additionally was underneath the sway of the rhetoric. The studying it self was considered to be a system of rules, which instructs us to articulate composed structure with ease”, and electricity, assortment. (Walker J. 1829:39).So, it may possibly be presumed the readers had a need to utilize a mix of rhetoric and syntax, as a way to comprehend a text accurately, and also to communicate the right meaning to the hearer ( in case that it's a text was read aloud loud).

The rhetoric, generally, the conversation itself, called for every component of individual li Fe: “believed, terminology, words and also actions.”(Nauck?nait? 2000:13) Despite The Fact That the principal principles stayed an identical, moving years introduced some discrepancies involving the students who analysed the rhetoric. The rhetoricians were in the predicament about the way of communicating and a person. Rhetoric broken up in to two teams: contemporary and ancient rhetoric. (Notice Desk 1) The fans of ancient rhetoric considered the primary aim of rhetoric was to get a hearer; it designed to present the notions, which were right and held as details, till additional, mo-Re powerful, notions appeared. The advice offered must be right, obvious and real, with no components that were added.

The supporters of rhetoric that was contemporary and the classicists differed. The modernists presumed a text offered needed to tell visitors or hearers as an alternative to to get them. The communicating against the crowd was the pre-requisite; the info offered had a need to indicate some emotions to the crowd. Modernists thought that excellent sway of any address lived maybe not simply in the mode of its own demonstration, but in addition in the particular info or its construction. It may possibly be said the modernists had identified an approach that was more sensitive to command the focus of bigger crowd or a hearer.

Desk 1. The distinctions in ancient and contemporary rhetoric

Rhetoric that is ancient

Contemporary rhetoric

Many significant characteristic in person was head

The connection (between loudspeaker and hearer) needed to be hostile

Communicating was of oneway

The goal was to get

Many significant characteristic in person was emotions

The partnership (between loudspeaker and hearer) needed to be link

Communicating wasmutual

The goal was to tell

However, the strategy of individual and communicating in the rhetoric faced discrepancies involving the scientific researchers, the use of punctuation was plainly identified:”the main basis for punctuating: to explain the fixed construction of terminology that will-or just may possibly-otherwise be confounding or deceptive.” (Lauchman R. Punctuation On the Job 2002:24) In rhetoric, But punctuation was useful to get a broader function. So that you can present text or phrases “ and right living, the punctuation focused to the presentation styles for example tone, message or tuning. Each symbol needed to satisfy a particular function that will help the reader or presenter to create the texts more obviously, i.e. to in breathe the precise or, a minimum of, related appear of a shades or message found in the mouth conversation. Also, the marks revealed suggested the variety or the features of the phrases in addition to needing extra info or supplied the significance of the idea that was finished. For example, the stop that was full revealed the ending of a word, which had the tone that was dropping. The idea had no added significance, and was concluded. The questionmark, to the contrary, released and tuning and the readers, and revealed the demand of added info type the loudspeaker that was different. However, each mark was significant in the studying and comprehending any text, comma, dash were popular in punctuation that was rhetorical.

1.1.1. Comma

Communicating was inseparable component of existence that is human. It helped to trade the information together, or just to understand the others, examine their activities. Talking in addition to creating had the exact same function: to provide a reader with any advice. On the other hand, the problem appeared: the many of the facets of a language employed in talking are not “as well signified on paper: the rises and drops in message, the highlights, the breaks, the beat, the variants in words quality— these characteristics of seem that added considerably to talking but this authorship revealed aimlessly if at all.”(Chafe W. 1989:1) So, the primary reason for using punctuation was presenting the visual equal to the spoken vocabulary to be able to reveal the right tone or tuning found in the phrase. The punctuation tag that was overlooked frequently resulted in the mis-interpretation of the significance. The equivalent mis-interpretation of a significance relied to the beat, i.e. the tension marks as well as the amount of syllables.

Tuning the communicating was powerfully affected by itself; the right use of advice relied on the mode of its own utterance. The linguists found people “more strongly answer intonational significance than to lexical ones.” (Hewings M. T One Selection in the Language Tuning of Non-Native Speakers 1995: 251) It may possibly be said the info introduced to the crowd generally was below the sway of tuning. Message, slipping or growing hues started to perform with the role that was significant in the characteristic of any text that was verbal. A loudspeaker system had a need to take notice maybe not simply on text that was verbal, but additionally to the amount of breaks involving the phrases as well as command his voice degree. The boffins of phonetics found that a number outside variables: atmosphere, the status of individuals talked to as well as the crowd to which advice was offered affected the versions in a verbal task. The boffins found the three types of diction: high-speed recognizable, and proper, attentive colloquial. Conventional fashion of enunciation was utilized to “ saying, reading, talking before bigger market, at services, or giving an educational ” (Hoppe R. 2004: 20) The cautious colloquial fashion had moderate speed and pre-owned the assimilations. This type was found in “every day dialogues, when speaking with the established men or strangers.”( Hoppe R. 2004: 20) The high-speed recognizable fashion was indicated in “fast dialogues: addressing mates, in the household, and in the pub.” (Hoppe R. 2004: 20) This type employed rapid velocity, the assimilations and decreases.

The amount of a stop decreased in a phrase; hearers were directed by this perhaps not and then the pain to the loudspeaker, but likewise to the mistake of the entire advice because the info talked in high-speed fashion was difficult to follow along with. The gradual talking, to the contrary, prolonged the amount of breaks plus primary perform was misplaced by them. An introduced or language text became monotonic to follow, together with determined the variance of t One; the extended breaks altered the construction of phrase. Thus, so that you can restrain arrangement and the duration of the phrases, punctuation was utilized.

It may possibly be said that comma was the hottest punctuation tag in rhetoric. The primary operate of the symbol was to show a kind of tuning or t One employed in a phrase also presenting the breaks involving the language. The modifications of tuning relied about the position of comma utilized in a phrase. To operating to the rest of a phrase affecting their modifications of tuning to put it differently, comma-separated what from them. Presenting the more profound investigation of the t One and intonational versions, the phrases from Galsworthy J. function The Forsyte Saga and its particular interpretation in to Lithuanian by Irena Bal?iunien? were selected. The visible display of the change of the tone of phrases as well as the were analysed utilizing the mark that was unique. (Notice Desk 2)

Table 2. The icons employed for the written text of the diction

The symbol

The reason for use.

? ?

lengthy stop


Brief stop

Reduced dropping air (holler the letter)


reduced growing air (holler the notice)

Large dropping air (over the letter)


large climbing air (over the letter)


joined waving tune


Broken up waving tune


interrupted melody


Pressured term or portion of term

(Modified from Hoppe R.)

To get a more profound visual evaluation of the association with tuning and marks a few phrases in the book were selected. The phrases were analysed applying this purchase: its own terminology that was comparable to Lithuanian and British word.

Studying phrases it may be said that fantastic sway of movement that is intonationl relied on the span a word; more added tips in a word were employed, harder should in breathing the right tuning in a word. In this investigation a complex or simple phrases were introduced.

a) “He continues to be disclosed into a vision of the subdued streets of societal improvement, (1)?has comprehended something of patriarchal / lifestyle, (2)? of the swarmings of savage lots / , (3)? of the / rise and fall of states. “ (Galsworthy J. The Forsyte Saga1922: 4)

a1) “/ Šiam steb?tojui (?) atsiverdavo migloti visuomen?s vystymosi keliai, (1) ? jis prad?davo suvokti š? bei t? apie patriarchalin? / buit?, (2) ? besipuikuojan?ias pirmykštes ordas /, (3)?apie taut? / iškilim? bei žlugim?.”( Golsvortis Dž. Forsait?Saga1992: 11)

The a) word can be split to three components in accordance with the place of a comma. The first portion of the word finished prior to the (1)? (the brief stop). The lower tone that was falling predominated. , however, in rhetoric the increasing tone was generally signaled by comma, there have been instances, when comma was employed to state the message of idea that is partly completed. The predicate was declared and item routes were pressured. The primary role of anxiety was to highlight a particular area of the term that has been taken to get a declaration. The second portion of a word had the tone that is lower; the added info was suggested by the tone that is increasing as well as the word had not been completed. Thus, the after the (2) ? the t One was growing. The next portion of a word, after (3) brief stop, utilized waving air; the increase used increasing t One while the drop was portrayed by means of the decreasing t One. The t One that was dropping was utilized to signify the idea that was completed. The purpose additionally suggested there wasn't introduced extra data in the phrase.

The a-1) word, to the contrary, began by means of the stressed thing šiam. It revealed the tuning had low increasing air: the message was similarly increasing before the term steb?tojui. Could be prevented an interruption, or there may possibly be utilized: using punctuation tag not suggested it. In the event the interruption subsequent to the term steb?tojui were created, it could reveal that a number of sort of man was defined: this is of a phrase targeted on this specific area. On the opposite, the significance of the word might stay unchanged since the second portion of a word (after (1) ?) the field jis seemed and suggested the exact sam-e given individual as well as the tuning would fall. Subsequent to the first portion of a word, one again, the discipline jis were pressured as well as the second portion of a phrase had slowly increasing (reduced) air. By the end of the second portion of the phrase, the thing buit? was created using the increasing t One. It suggested the idea wasn't completed: the hearer was launched by this mark using the enumeration of additional things. If audience needed to highlight the state of the lots the next adjective pirmykštes may be pressured. This is might just pay attention to the lots if both adjectives were left un-stressed. After (3) brief stop, the waving tune was utilized. It finished by means of the low dropping t One, adopted by stage set at the last part of a phrase and began by means of the lower increasing t One.

Additional instance utilized for the evaluation of tuning variance was considered a sentence that was complicated.

b) After one go through the outdated / face, (1) ?the / physician, (2)? hurriedly delivered for, (3)? declared (4)? that / Skip Forsyte had died in her slumber. (Galsworthy J. The Forsyte Saga1922: 88)

b1) Skubiai iškviestas /gydytojas, (1) ? /vos pažvelg?s ? sena jos veid?, (2)? pareišk?, (3) ? ? / kad mis Forsait mir? miegodama. (Golsvortis Dž. Forsait? Saga1992: 80)

The phrase b) furthermore presented a version of the tuning. The start of the word had the reduced air that is growing. There (1), in accordance with the principle following the comma the increasing t One was employed. Pursuing by still another principle (the comma suggested a brief stop); the subject physician was pronounced using the reduced increasing tone and disrupted from the (2) ?. For stood for the modifier of a way the section of phrase hurriedly delivered. Added advice was supplied by it about it, but interrupted the reduced growing air because, in accordance with the guideline modifiers would have to be divided using a punctuation tag. Both commas (2) and (3) detached adverbial modifier from the brief breaks. It resulted in the quick and monotonic tuning, that has been damaged from the (3)?. If adverbial modifier of method wasn't found in this word, the tuning of the role a doctor declared might be low elevating; , however, there had not been a symbol offered subsequent to the predicate declared, yet the brief stop was created (4)?. This interruption, studying from lexical standpoint, can standalone minus the danger of losing this is of a notion as another word, and suggested the comparable term of a complicated phrase, featuring an unique topic and predicate. Yet, in this word, the relative clause was linked to the the rest of the phrase, to be able to make use of the separated waving tune: i.e. lifting t One (on day one of the comparable term) and dropping t One (by the end of a member of family terms).

The Lithuanian interpretation, to the contrary, introduced the lower lifting air initially of a phrase usually, prior to the (1) ?. These component of the sentence differed from your Language, from the t One: in translation the waving that was separated tune was employed. The component vos pažvelg?s ? sena jos veid? at the last part was generated quickly from the dropping air. Nevertheless, it had been achievable to make use of the reduced growing tone as the (2)?was portrayed from the comma. The predicate pareišk? in cases like this was pronounced from the lower dropping air. Believed, (3)?was indicated by way of a comma, as well as the increasing t One may possibly be utilized, in this word, the purpose of a predicate was to suggest the assertion, so the lengthier stop was voiced; although in line with the guideline in rhetorical punctuation, the lengthy stop was utilized to signal colon or semi-colon symbols. The more details was added by the comparable terms, which had the air that was waving that was separated, began from reduced increasing t One, and finished together with the lower air that was dropping.

The sentence of exclamatory sort was, But introduced by still another instance.

c) If /one, (1)? in that case why don't you /all! (Galsworthy J. The Forsyte Saga1922: 88)

c1) Jei lemta / vietam, (1)? /vadinasi, (2)? ir / visiems ! (Golsvortis Dž. Forsait? Saga1992: 81)

The word c) was pronounced utilizing reduced increasing t One and its variety was suggested from the symbol at the last part mark “!”. This symbol suggested the word was and also the high elevating air would expresss the ending. The start of a word was pronounced utilizing increasing t One that was reduced. This tone advised the idea just isn't completed and introduced the brief stop. After (1)?, the t One stayed increased till the end-of a phrase. This type of tuning was employed to state sarcasm or the despair.

The c 1) word, to the contrary, had utilized assorted tuning. First of c-1) word began by means of the lower increasing t One, that has been adopted from the brief stop (1)?. The commas seemed because the parenthesis was employed in the interpretation and divided the brief stop. The lifting intonation, which reigned in the first word was disrupted by it; so the waving t One that was separated portrayed the vadinasi. The parenthesis was offered by this tone as decision or the assertion of the idea. The ending of the phrase was expressed from the increasing t One, due to the exclamatory mark; But using parenthesis failed to carry the exact same the distance tuning, that has been utilized in the phrase c).

1.1.2. Hyphen and hyphen capabilities in rhetoric

Another mark of punctuation was hyphen. Even though, this symbol was as young as the comma -most of the features that are intonational were admitted to the semi-colon - hyphen had the exact same function as the comma. Its primary job was to suggest the variance of the shades also presenting breaks, which span - in contrast to the comma- was doubled. In other words, the hyphen shattered the intonational movement pronounced from the loudspeaker and suggested breaks between the designated portions of a word. On paper, you'll find two kinds of hyphen: en-dash and em-dash; their features that are lexical were analysed in the next phase of the study papers. Their features were identical, however the visual demo relied on the terminology: English English utilized a brief symbol (--), while American English favored the extended one (?). Stylistically, the hyphen was employed as a” set [that] distinguished a powerful break in the remaining sentence.”(Penguin Team 1997:69)

Examining the hyphen in the standpoint that was rhetorical, both phrases were selected. Every one of these had different perspective of the hyphen, and was analysed using the exact same sequence as studying comma: i.e. the first word and its interpretation to Lithuanian; utilizing identical transcribing in the Desk 2.

a)A / bad point (1) ? -a / wretched (?) inferior / point! (Galsworthy J. The Forsyte Saga1922: 29)

a1)/ Vargšel?, (1)? web graudu / ži?r?ti! (Golsvortis Dž. Forsait? Saga1992: 33)

The phrase a) had the exact same large increasing air, employed before the ending of a word. The start of the first portion began by means of the increasing t One that was large. The hyphen (1)? suggested lengthier stop, that has been followed by an identical large increasing air. Since the exclamatory symbol was utilized the ending of a word also had lifting tone. In the a) word using hyphen was utilized for stylistic function; the anxious phrases transported equivalent value. Identical increasing tuning was additionally transported by the second portion of the phrase. Usually, in case a audience needed showing mo-Re mental approach in the direction of the topic he may possibly to stress each word the stop that is added seems. The basic significance of a phrase stayed not changed; the phrase may possibly convey the sarcasm, or possibly the empathy and anxiety.

The interpreted word a 1), to the contrary, utilized the comma, in place of hyphen. It had been the principle the hyphen in Lithuanian were employed simply to give work of an verb, or to indicate the added info. In Lithuanian, the comma consistently distinguished the tackle. The a) phrase, to the contrary, had mo-Re open-handed use of the hyphen symbol, then its interpretation a-1). The tuning of the a-1) phrase additionally was large climbing. A brief stop, that has been streamed from the pressured phrase reduced and graudu increasing t One was created by the comma.

The example that was other offered the use of set sprint.

b) Bosinney appeared /apt, (1)? but he previously / additionally- (2) ?? and -it had been among his fantastic interests / (3)?-an atmosphere (?)like he / didn't really understand (?)where /facet his breads were buttered. (Galsworthy J. The Forsyte Saga1922:51)

b1) / Bosinis (?) iš / paži?ros / nekvailas, (1)? / ta?iau (2) ? -d?l to labiausiai ir mada j? nusisamdyti (3)? - / atrodo, (4)?/ apsukrumo neturi n? už cent?. (Golsvortis Dž. Forsait? Saga1992: 51)

The word b)offered the combined version of the t One tunes. So that you can prevent the mistake, the phrase was broken up in to three components. First of the b) word was introduced from the reduced increasing t One, that has been adopted from the brief stop (1) ?. The combination but signaled the start of a predicated that was anxious along with the lower increasing t One. The architectural significance was suggested by the predicated in a phrase and was pronounced utilizing the improving tone that was reduced. The second portion of the b) word began using a stop (2) ?. The tuning, But was presented from using disrupted air (?). The component that is whole was introduced in the increasing t One that is lower, this portion was read quickly. The discretionary use of the association and revealed the colouring that is mental around the importance. The (3)? was adopted from the lower dropping t One, like presenting the assertion or the need for the significance of a phrase. There appeared, two added breaks, needless to say; their goal was to expose a readers with the info that was added. The stop was adopted from the increasing tone that was reduced. Ahead of the next stop that was added, the tuning stayed lifted. The pressured word which supplied added information on the topic of nature introduced in a phrase. The last portion of the b) was pronounced from use of separated waving tuning; this suggested the assertion, or the ending of an idea.

Examining the b-1) phrase, the first portion of the word employed the reduced increasing t One; equal t One stayed till the (1)?. The added pause, in cases like this, may be employed in two ways that were different. In the first place, it may look like subsequent to the Bosinis that is suitable, suggesting that this person was not unimportant. Second, the added stop, set by the end of parenthesis iš paži?ros, pressured the need for the grade of the theme nature, somewhat than centering about it. The second portion, subsequent to the association ta?iau, presented the fitful air (?). i.e. the abrupt split of a tuning; the added info was additionally created quickly without the unnecessary breaks of the breaks. Yet another parenthesis atrodo additionally was offered from the use of reduced increasing t One; there the interruption (4)?was accompanied from the separated waving t One, which generated the reduced slipping tone. The level at the end-of the b-1) phrase suggested the declaration or decision of the idea.

Examining hyphen (-), it may possibly be said that the rhetorical role of the symbol was” for connecting the syllables of phrases damaged in the finishes of lines.” (McCaskill M. 1998:60) Hyphen, in addition to being hyphen, was hardly utilized in conventional rhetoric; his features were of lexical use.

c)In Swithin's / lemon and / lightblue /Diningroom, (1)? /facing the Playground, (2)? the / roundtable was set for a dozen. (Galsworthy J. The Forsyte Saga1922:3 4)

C-1) Apvalus stalas (?)/ (2) oranžiniame ir šviesiai m?lyname Svidino valgomajame (?) /langais ? Haid Park? (1) ? buvo padengtas dvylikai asmen?. (Golsvortis Dž. Forsait? Saga1992: 37)

The word c) introduced the separated waving tuning. The light-blue and fruit had utilized the increasing tone that was reduced. The hyphen, involving what blue and mild, suggested the color that was specific, revealed for the ornamentation of an area. It offered the intonational value that was equivalent to this phrase mix. The breaks (1) ?and (2) ? divided the characteristic of reduced dropping t One, which set the place of chamber. This tuning employed broken up waving t One: the pressured adjective circular and noun table offered the reduced increasing hues, which at the last part of the word c) dropped, and reason thinking.

The c-1) phrase, to the contrary, hadn't employed the punctuation marks, so, it absolutely was rather tough to suggest the right, or a minimum of, comparable intonation. The start of a sentence may possibly possess some versions that are intonational. In case the discipline apvalus stalas was accompanied from the added stop, the entire word might get the separated waving air; the second portion (2) might be recognized as the adverbial modifier of the area. Another alternative of the intonational department was to place the added breaks involving the characteristic langais ? Haid Park?; this manner the aspect will be considered parenthesis, which supplied added advice. It's may possibly be seen that the tuning, if the mark wasn't supplied, frequently counted about the selection of an audience. In conclusion, it may possibly be noticed, although grammatically had the capabilities that are specially employed, in rhetoric, this mark couldn't determine that version of the hues.

1.1.3. Decisions that are partial

The more profound investigation of the punctuation in the point of view revealed the possibly just one, and primary, reason for the use of symbols was to in-breathe the related or same version of tuning in a text, that has been readily introduced in a language that was spoken. Being the earliest technology, useful for display or the marketing of details, the rhetoric met with a variety of ideas of its own display and the terminology. These hypotheses brought the rhetoric to be broken up into two divisions: contemporary and conventional. These two departments had their fans that attempted to evaluate the mouth intent behind the terminology, communicating as well as the ready talking i.e. languages. Prior to the growth of syntax and the phonetics, rhetoric was the scientific discipline that has been utilized completely protected the evaluation of the vocabulary that is whole.

In-breathe the to the phrases and the arrival of marks produced easer to communicate the thoughts. The symbols not merely from running in to each other split their components or the phrases; in addition they were the directing traces useful for the sign of message, the shades along with the version of tuning. In the comparative evaluation of the use of hyphen and comma in Lithuanian and English phrases, it may be said that the location of comma frequently ordered the tuning. The breaks that introduced the split waving tune, which finished from the dropping tone would often separate it if sentence had parenthesis at the center. The Language exact carbon copy of the word that is sam-e, which absolutely had no parenthesis, had an identical t One found in the word that is entire. This t One had more powerful intonational significance of a word as opposed to initial one, and had not been sub-divided in to the versions of distinct tunes. Comma appeared not than the dash as the marks its use that was rhetorical had not been definitely recognized. It had been found that hyphen had an identical rhetorical are the comma: to signal length of a shades of message and breaks. This symbol furthermore was employed to show number of talk, which may present the perspective of a persona, or to provide the added info such as opinions or the view of the writer. The hyphen had mo-Re capabilities that are lexical, instead that rhetorical. Due to its apathy of capabilities that are rhetorical, the hyphen was realty found in terminology that is British. Although their perform differed Lithuanian, to the contrary, employed the hyphen for the two and lexical functions. The hyphen absolutely had no particular impact around the tuning, frequently it worked as the index of a particular significance of term combinations. Along with the evaluation of tuning, it had been found that the message earned the many sway in the version of tuning.

In conclusion, it may possibly be said that marks had the big event: to guide an audience or loudspeaker to the mis-interpretation of a notion or to shift the entire significance of a phrase. Wrong visible display of the hues frequently introduced the damaged tuning: the introduced language or some other text was both monotonic: extended breaks, scarcely increased tuning and frequently slipping t One set up where it ought to be lifted; or overly psychological: the brief breaks, lifted or waving air and quickly verbal phrases, when the rhetorical connection of areas of a phrase was dropped.

1.2. Lexical convention of punctuation

Punctuation was inseparable component of individuals communicating. Its use can be seen in the novels, composed addresses, as well as the pages of mags and papers, or even in the dialogs, tunes, orally offered advice. The grammarians concurred that punctuation was significant division of the format because of its features that were lexical. Therefore, it may be said the all the researcher, recently declared, that punctuation had right analysed and to be called as a divided department of terminology technology.

Nunberg recognized the punctuation as type “defined in somewhat graphical conditions: some low-alpha numeric characters which can be utilized to supply information regarding architectural relationships among components of a text, including commas, semi colons, colons, periods, parentheses, quote marks.”(Nunberg G. 1990 :17) Iyer P., But in his article, said the symbols functioned as “the street signs placed across the main road of our communicating -- to command rates, supply guidelines preventing head on collisions.(Iyer 1988: 1) The punctuation marks broken up a word into smaller components or components, revealed first or the ending of thinking, and established a specific area of the language. Linda K. McCaskill said that the punctuation had four features: “to divide (an interval divides phrases); to team or enclose (parentheses enclose external info), to attach (a hyphen joins a device modifier), and also to give significance (a questionmark will make an otherwise declarative phrase interrogative). (McCaskill 1998:44) From Wilson's standpoint, the syntactical punctuation was “a the-art of breaking up a fictional composition in to phrases and parts of phrases in the form of factors, with the aim of showing the numerous mixes, links, and dependency of words.” (1856:2) It may possibly be said that the primary goal of the symbols was “to enable an author, instead of to bother, expressing the significance of a phrase including its psychological function” (LKRS 1992: 129) But perhaps not on a regular basis, punctuation aided the authors to developed the phrases, that have been best in construction, relationship with additional lexical elements, and psychological significance. Several authors fought psychologically working word and making the syntactically right , however, each symbol had the principles as well as an unique goal, useful for it specific component.

Evaluating Lithuanian and Language punctuations in the lexical perspective, it may possibly be said that punctuation, after unmanageable use of comma and semi-colon, was centered on features of punctuation and the lexical construction. Thus, Language syntax became fairly rigorous and analogical. Its primary objective was presenting the syntactical section of a text or a word. The syntax, to the contrary was punctuation that is rigorous and obvious; it centered on the construction of a sentence. Yet the scientist found that punctuation became targeted and mo-Re liberal about the intonational use of to in breathe the in to the word: a mark; to allow it to be near the natural terminology construction and tuning. With this goal grammarians offered them both manner of punctuation use. The primary goal was to divide the punctuations that are elective and essential. The mandatory punctuation relied on “the apparent options that come with syntax and construction, while using elective punctuation was predicated on the intent of an author, and intonational accents.”(Pangonyt? A. LIETUVI? KALBOS SKYRYBOS NAUJOV?S 2008:1) But this section may well not stop the elevating of the lengthy and awkward phrases. The punctuation guidelines that were elective supplied the option of the tag: it had been overlooked, or the mark was utilized, or chanced to another - . It may possibly be seen that discretionary guidelines, although supplied the liberty these rule failed to avoid the dropping of purpose and the practical significance of the symbols.

1.2.1. Use in various sorts of a sentence of comma

Being popular punctuation mark, comma was “the many omnipresent, evasive and discretionary of stops”.(2007:4) in Accordance With the objective, comma was broken up into four kinds: “listing comma, the joining comma, the gapping comma and bracketing comma.” (Penguin Team 1997:14) It was found that the variety of comma was suggested by its own function and place in a word. For the visible display of the use of comma, the office of the varieties of the phrases analysed parsing.

Its own location analysed the comma in its own interpretation and the first phrases, utilizing the special tagging of every area of the word. An interest was designated with ( ). A verb was marked with ( ). To signify an item this mark was utilized ( ). An aspect had ( ) because of its mark. The closing extra portion of the word, an adverbial modifier was designated ( ). The comma and its own place in a word was designated (^).

In syntax, the three kinds of phrases were discovered: a) straightforward, b) substance and c) elaborate. Examining the phrases, them split as one member, 2-member phrases, unextended or extended. Frequently, onemember word contains just one theory component. It did not need an interest and a predicate these were portrayed the object that is direct or from the modifier. 2-associate word, to the contrary, had “a topic as well as a predicate.”(Bakshi R.N. A Training Course in English Syntax 2005:1) The drawn-out phrases were suggested from the extra components, which appeared within their construction. The word that is unextended had a predicate and just a subject !

The phrase that is basic turned out to be a word which “featured of a single principal terms just.” (Verspoor M. & S. K. Language Sentence Analysis 2000: 3-5). Maybe it's brief or long, extended or unextended; the primary state: it had a need to get one lexical center: a predicate and also an interest. The punctuation counted to the amount of the parts that were secondary, which had to be divided with a symbol.

a) Wriggling his lengthy ^, slim legs^, James proceeded. (Galsworthy J. The Forsyte Saga1922:11)

a1) Sukeit?s ilgas liesas kojas ^, Džeimas postringavo toliau. (Golsvortis Dž. Forsait? Fable 1992: 3 3)

Examining the place of a comma in the word a), it had been found the comma outlined the portions of a phrase i.e. the comma involving the adjectives shown the outline of the thighs. It had been designated the legs were slender and extended. 2Nd comma in a)word, generally, was accustomed to divide the adverbial modifier of way from your chief term.

The Lithuanian interpretation a-1), to the contrary, disregarded the initial comma. Using punctuation that was elective was introduced. The translator had two choices: to omit punctuation tag, or possibly to make use of comma subsequent to the first ilgas. The thing will be pressured suggesting the significance of its own feature if he fit the symbol between these adjectives; the kojos was lean and extended. In this instance, but the intonation and added stop (created involving the adjectives) also held the primary purpose of the adjectives: presenting a feature of an item or topic. Only one time comma was employed by the phrase; its operate was to signal the location of modifier.

b) “Jolyon ^, he can have his own manner”. (Galsworthy J. The Forsyte Saga1922: 11)

b1) - Aišku^, Džolionas visada darys savaip. (Golsvortis Dž. Forsait? Fable 1992: 18)

Studying b) word as well as the comma standing, it may be said that without added information regarding the personality a direct tackle should be, separated by the comma, generally. On the other hand, the circumstance supplied contrary use of a tagging. The comma, there, was utilized to define the field of the word: to show an individual. The estimate marks (found in the start of b) word) in Language, suggested the immediate language.

The Lithuanian interpretation b-1), to the contrary, employed the trait at first of a word. As the feeling sign; introduced the unique perspective of a loudspeaker it functioned. According the principle in punctuation, the aspect needed to be divided with a comma to. But when characteristic appeared together with the combination that was added, the author was relied to by its punctuation; the punctuation principles that were discretionary offered liberty to, or to distinguish the aspect left it unchanged. In addition, it was discovered the hyphen in punctuation was very same of the estimate marks.

The place of comma in the phrase that was substance counted on using combination. Word that is ingredient turned out to be a phrase which “consisted of a couple of conditions of equivalent value joined by conjunctions comprehended or portrayed.” (Timber T. Syntax and Writing 2007: 7). The co-ordinate conjunctions as generally defined the word: and, But nor, or, s O for. They joined two identical phrases of the phrase.

c) There is heat ^, but tiny color ^, in her cheekbones; her big ^, dark eyes were gentle. (Galsworthy J. The Forsyte Saga1922: 9)

c1) Kad ir neparaudusiuose jos skruostuose buvo justi šiluma; didel?s tamsios akys švelniai švit?jo. (Golsvortis Dž. Forsait? Fable 1992:16)

The use of the comma in the c) phrase was to divide the terms of equivalent value. It however may be called as a term , however, the 2nd terms had no topic or predicate. In this scenario, the second portion of the terms but color that is tiny might hold the role of the item that is extensive. An easy phrase would be formed by the remaining elements in the initial term, whether this term was disregarded. In this sentence the terms that was 2nd seemed at the center of the phrase the comma split the term from either side. The comma that was next put involving the characteristics dim and big revealed the report on the adjectives, utilized to refer to the subject of the term that was next.

The c-1) word, to the contrary, was interpreted such way this, grammatically, using comma was discretionary. The punctuation introduced the observing of the motes as selection that was elective; if author needed to exhibit the intonational and notional freedom, the comma might be employed. In the third-part of the word the comma involving the characteristics didel?s and tamsios was overlooked. The punctuation of the terms was not obligatory; using comma could not be unavailable, if your author noticed the features of aspects being add up to one another.

The next kind of a word was called not simple. It comprised “of one plus one main term or more subordinate ” (Timber T. Syntax and Writing 2007: 7). It'd a minimum of “one total reliant term using an unique subject and predicate.”(Verspoor M., Sauter K. Language Sentence Evaluation 2000: 3-5) The centered terms turned out to be a clause, which began together with the subordinating conjunctions: because, even though, if, while, who, where, when, so, after, till. There furthermore were employed such mixtures as such….that, as though, as even though, in spite of the fact that and etc. These conjunctions joined various kinds of adverbial phrases as: the adverbial term of etc., comparison, location, trigger, conclusion goal, style and moment In accordance with such conjunctions, the version of marks was utilized: hyphen or semi-colon; the colon, comma. The greatest method showing the categorization of conjunctions was to expose an audience by means of the dining table of sorts of conjunctions.

Dining table 3. The categorization of the subordinating conjunctions

The kind of clause that is adverbial

The typical subordinators of clauses that are adverbial

Adverbial Clause of Time

Before, after, till, while, when, because as

Adverbial Clause of Comparison

Even though, also, although (expressing the surprising outcome)

While, where as, inasmuch, as ( expressing the immediate competitors)

Adverbial Clause of Place


Adverbial Terms of Trigger

Because, because, as, where as, inasmuch, as

Adverbial Clause of Result

such + (adjective) + noun + that

S O + adjective or adverb + that

so + several, few, substantially, small + that

Adverbial Clause of Goal

To ensure

Adverbial Clause of Style

Like like

(Modified from DeCapua )

The selection of punctuation tag relied on two characteristics: the vocabulary of a text as well as the association. An association generally signified what its mixture or mark ought to be properly used. Say the association was indicated by English British yet using the commas from either side of the term or by the end of the association, when the phrase was exposed by it. American Language, to the contrary, punctuated yet utilizing two conjunctions: the semi colon (before association) and comma (by the end of association). The English Language was set up in the instance that was following.

d) It had been worthwhile ^, yet ^, and Jo had never been sulky with him. (Galsworthy J. The Forsyte Saga1922:31)

d1) Ta?iau rizikuoti reik?jo ^, be to ^, Džo niekada ankš?iau neširsdavo and jo. (Golsvortis Dž. Forsait? Saga 1992:34)

The d) word introduced the mark of the subordinating combination utilizing two commas. Generally, if combination appeared at the center of a word, it must be divided from both factors. The use of subordinating association supplied the section of the conditions. The association was finished prior to by the very first term of the word; the place of the combination would vary, when that term was created as a word that was degage: it could be utilized in the sentence's beginning. The comma before the association and additional terms that is suggested: it supplied the continuance of the idea.

The d 1) word employed the exact same indicating systemin the complicated word. From both factors, the association was marked generally. Lithuanian interpretation, But split the association be to(very same to the and), as an alternative to yet. Generally, there were needed. This combination additionally could break up d 1) word into detached conditions. The next term nevertheless supplied added advice of the idea even though, the word started against the combination.

1.2.2. Hyphen on your behalf of a comma

Proof readers and several grammarians began to pay attention to the capabilities of additional symbols though comma was the hottest punctuation tag. Lately, the focus was directed at the hyphen. The grammarians found the comma one started to not be underuse. The grammarians proposed utilizing the hyphen in order to avoid this. The hyphen it self can be called “striking indicating, symbol and sudden split in the stream of a word. “ (Ellsworth B. Language syntax simplified 2002: 5 9) Its principal features should “break the boredom and to indicate a change in focus between the primary thought of the phrase,” also presenting the added info unrelated to the primary topic of the phrase. Examining the hyphen, two kinds: emdash that was enand were offered by the grammarians. The splash had exactly the same span as hyphen. Its primary function was to suggest “the comprehensive or continuous amounts or dates” or “to individual component modifier using a 2-term or hyphenated component.”( McCaskil M. 1998:58 ) The emdash, on the other hand, was the span of two en hyphen (--). Some grammarians, But utilized the extended hyphen (---): the American Language variant of hyphen, which supplied better visible separation. The capabilities of emdash was to enclose the components included inner commas “ and ” explain when the serial of commas are employed and to highlight the component surrounded. (McCaskil M. 1998: 5 7) Also, sometimes them sprint served as the replacing of semicolon or colon, when found in importance of a word. It may be found that hyphen was needed just in guidelines that were a number of; the others principles supplied the author with the chance to make use of comma. The primary features of the hyphen should happen to suggest the left out predicate in a phrase; to tag the apposition to divide the aspect that is extended, or so that you can highlight identification or the description of the models of a word. In other instances the comma can be altered, or overlooked. It may be said the lexical features of comma and the hyphen were identical; they break up the word into smaller components or had to split.

1.2.3. Decisions that are part

Subsequent to the more profound investigation of punctuation in the lexical perspective, it had been found that punctuation tag, although working as the separators of their components or the phrases, however stored the reference to the tuning. The ideas that were different were offered on their function in a phrase, as well as use of punctuation marks, nevertheless, the all the grammarians concurred that primary intent behind the punctuation was to divide a word into components that were smaller. In addition, it may possibly be said that the terminology it self was relied to by the right use of punctuation. The subordinating conjunctions were punctuated in two methods: English British divided them using commas; American Language, on another had, favored to indicate them using semi colon (on the first day of the association) and comma (by the end of it). The sprint additionally had two means of indicating: the en splash (had the amount of hyphen), and emdash (had the amount of two en splash). But several authors favored using the hyphen that was American: it offered more visual separation of the models, and had the amount of three en dashes. Evaluating the hyphen features in Lithuanian and Language, it may be said that Lithuanian hyphen had to signal the verb overlooked, or even in the focus, when characteristic or the resistance appeared, in other instances, authors favored the use of comma. British hyphen, to the opposite, was favored to be change to colon or semicolon in the place of comma. Comma had not intonational operate and more powerful architectural than the colon and semi colon.

Examining the versions of the use in both Lithuanian and British phrases, it had been found that the same capabilities found in both dialects were discussed by a few principles. The discretionary principles of punctuation were employed expressing mental and intonational goals. However, it supplied the fundamental mandatory principles of the punctuation, it may be said that a one had not larger sway to the text, than psychological expressiveness of a though. It may be said this, evaluating two punctuation techniques of distinct dialects, Language from generous punctuation was created in more stringent, while Lithuanian (being rigid), today became used more liberally, focusing about the author's purpose to state his composing design along with the mental colouring to the indicated idea.