Potential technology wireless systems are required to aid numerous instant entry Systems, each with protection array and various entry bandwidth. Two of those systems incorporate Common Cellular Telecommunications Program (UMTS) and IEEE 802.11 Wireless Neighborhood Communities (WLANs). Supply of real-time common connection to cellular customers, everywhere, anytime through these systems remains challenging. This function suggests a finish-to-end mobility management option that allows cellular customers while shifting across heterogeneous access systems to keep smooth connection. The constant network connection is acquired through the usage of cellular devices designed with the power and also double network interfaces to change data-transmission between these interfaces based upon the accessibility to the access community. We examine and provide this type of double- style radio access device's look and suggest an easy inter-technology handoff method. By doing experimental simulation checks using OPNET we assess the efficiency of our recommended structure.
Networks and the Cellular communications are developing in a quick rate. Sophisticated methods are rising in these professions. There's a powerful requirement for adding WLANs to build up hybrid cellular information systems incredibly high and with the capacity of information providers data rates in locations. UMTS programs for example Common Mobile Telecommunication Devices (UMTS) can offer flexibility over a sizable protection region, but with fairly low rates of the main one hundred and forty-four kilo bit-per minute. On other hand, WLANs supply highspeed information providers (as much as 11 Mbits/sec with 802.11b) over a geographically smaller region. WLANs are usually applied to complement capability and the bandwidth of the UMTS community in hotspot locations for example railways with high-traffic -densities, without restricting the capability supplied to mobile customers.
The following the remainder of the task is structured. Part 2 supplies a short history on UMTS and WLAN systems. Part 3 offers the adding structure of UMTS and WLAN. Part 4 offers the style type of the simulation and also us the strategy. Part 5 offers us results and the evaluation of the simulation. Part 6 covers the design of the recommended switching and handoff approaches for running between WLAN and UMTS systems. Part 7 we evaluate two integration architectures linking 802.11 systems and UMTS.
These requirements WLAN  have now been used in practices, houses and public locations such as for example airports and resorts provided its inexpensive, sensible bandwidth (11Mbits/s), and easy implementation. Nevertheless, a significant downside of 802.11 may be the little protection region (as much as 300 yards) . Additional 802.11 requirements contain 802.11a and 802.11g, which permit bit-rates as high as 54 Mbits/sec.
UMTS is defined by ITU as any system that obtain or may transfer data or . At as much as 384 Kbps, UMTS products may move information used. Like a contrast, International Program for Mobile Communications (GSM) data-rates are as much as 14.4 Kbps and General Packet Radio Support (GPRS) is about 53.6 Kbps utilized in 2G and 2.5G respectively.
Two primary recommended methods for UMTS acknowledged by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) are Code-Division Multiple Entry (CDMA2000) and Common Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) . UMTS consists of two associated although diverse Settings. Wideband CDMA. FDD function is the primary engineering for UMTS. Individual 5 MHz service wavelengths are utilized for that uplink and downlink respectively, permitting a finish-person data-rate as much as 384 Kbits/sec.
An UMTS system includes three connecting areas- a Primary System (CN), Stereo Access System (RAN) and also the Person Gear (UE) also known as an UMTS mobile place [3, 13]. UMTS procedure employs two fits that are regular: UMTS that have small variations regarding the elements they've within the CN and also the RAN.
UMTS core network's primary purpose would be to offer transportation, changing and routing for consumer traffic. Additionally, it offers the administration capabilities that are sources. The CN is divided in to Signal-changed (CS) and Box-changed (PS) areas. The weather of circuit-switched contain Customer Spot Register (VLR), and entry MSC. These organizations are typical to the standards in addition to UMTS. The variations within the CN regarding both requirements lie-in the PS site. Box-changed components in UMTS contain (SGSN and GGSN)
CDMA2000 packet-changed element is mainly the Box Data Serving Node (PDSN). Some community components like Gear Identity Register (EIR), House Site Register (HLR) are discussed by both areas. The MSC server's primary purpose would be to manage phone-handle for signal-centered services including bearer services, etc. The MSC machine additionally offers link management, flexibility management and abilities for portable media in addition to era of receiving data. Additionally, it may be co-situated using the Customer Spot Register (VLR).
GGSN may be the entrance to additional information systems. It facilitates handle signalling towards IP-address and outside IP systems for certification part, and flexibility inside the cellular community. GGSN provides capabilities for forwarding and handling user-information (IP packages) to and from outside systems (Internet/intranets). SGSN provides program management, i.e. systems for institution, preservation and launch of consumer Box Data Protocol (PDP) contexts. Additionally, it offers flexibility management and facilitates inter-program handoff between cellular systems. SGSN facilitates of receiving data era. Numerous capabilities are incorporated by the PDSN . Routing packages towards the IP community, task of powerful ip addresses and sustaining stage-to-point process (PPP) periods are a few of its primary features. Additionally, it triggers the certification, agreement and sales (AAA) for that mobile station. Radio stations access community offers the air-interface entry way of the consumer equipment. And UMTS RAN (UTRAN) includes Radio Network Controllers (RNC) and Bottom Areas (BS) or Node-W. The RNCs handle many concurrent Stereo Link Protocol (RLP) periods using the Person Tools and per-link bandwidth management. It manages the Node-W for packing and congestion control. Additionally, it completes funnel signal percentage and entrance control for brand new stereo links to become proven from the Node-W.
A CDMA2000 RAN includes a platform section and 2 rational elements- the Box Control Functionality (PCF) and also the Stereo Resources Control (RRC). Preserve, the main purpose of the PCF would be to create and end contacts towards the PDSN. Handle and the PCF communicates using the RRC to demand stereo assets to be able to exchange packages to and in the station. Sales info also gathers and wards it towards the PDSN. RRC facilitates air-interface security towards the station and supports certification and agreement of the portable station for radio entry.
WLAN Systems and uMTS have now been incorporated with methods and various methods. Both methods that are most often utilized are free internetworking and restricted. Additional methods are adjustments of those two fundamental methods. Within the restricted internetworking strategy, the WLAN network doesn't seem being an exterior box information system to the UMTS core network. Alternatively, it seems merely as another UMTS Radio Access System. WLAN system in this instance emulates many capabilities of the UMTS RAN. This really is permitted by using a specific WLAN entrance between the WLAN network that tools all UMTS methods needed within the UMTS Radio Access System and covers the facts of the 802.11 network and also the UMTS core network. The structure is effective at supplying running providers to customers with double collection (UMTS and 802.11) community cards within their cellular devices. By using this strategy, both systems frequently reveal certification systems and common payment. Nevertheless, the UMTS core community, that could make it turn into a bottleneck is passed through by all traffic in the WLAN network.
Internetworking that is restricted also needs frequent possession of both systems that doesn't allow it to be an implementation technique that is very possible. Whilst the UMTS security methods could be recycled within the WLAN system nevertheless, restricted internetworking has high-security systems. Additionally, it offers fast handoffs as running between your two systems may be the just like shifting between two RANs of the exact same UMTS system (because the WLAN community seems like a diverse Routing Place only).
Free internetworking, about the other-hand the WLAN entrance doesn't have any strong connect to UMTS network components and immediately attached to the Web. As opposed to limited coupling, the WLAN data traffic doesn't go through the UMTS core community but moves straight to the IP community (Web). Within this strategy, various systems and methods are designed for certification, payment and flexibility management within the WLAN and UMTS parts of the community. Free coupling permits traffic design and separate implementation of the WLAN systems and has low-investment expenses. Additional UMTS- their functions as well as WLAN internetworking methods are described within the table. Cellular IP [5 ]'s architecture views WLANs system as impartial. That allows the simple implementation of but is affected with handoff latency, actual tome providers and capabilities. The entrance strategy  enables the two community impartial procedure which in turn provides service of smooth running between your systems. Both systems are links via GPRS help node that is digital utilizing a new node that is logical. Cellular IP's use isn't needed within the entrance strategy with a reduction during handoff box that was relatively lower. It's hard to release emulator strategy  when it takes possession of the because of reduced handoff latency although equally two systems produce allow it to be definitely better suited for real time programs suitable.
Finally the expert-systems  strategy enables the implementation quickly but additionally is affected with
Individual possession of
UMTS and WLAN systems
Allowed with contracts of running
UMTS mobile AAA recovery
Function UMTS customers
Permits UMTS and WLAN
Systems to use
Can offer equally, individual
WLAN security in addition to
Individual in addition to
Can offer equally, individual
WLAN security in addition to
Employs UMTS billing
Usually needs both
WLAN and UMTS systems
To become held by same
UMTS ciphering key used
for WLAN security
Functions re used
Implementation of WLAN
and UMTS networks.
Mobile entry entrance
Payment mediator to
Equally, same or diverse
The Usage Of AAA performance
of the UMTS network
Payment function of
Large handoff delays which makes it unacceptable for real time programs. The integration architecture's option is essential since numerous integration factors occur with various price- efficiency advantages for various situations.
Both methods will work in the information program put up wait, conversation of process across the focused station usage (DCH), period of download reaction FTP and web site. Signalling concept can be planed by the machine handle degree of conversation methods by dealings that will be between the systems' nodes. In the design confirmation procedure conversation utilized and full was simulation between your equally community UMTS and WLAN is precisely modelled.
Committed channels' energetic UMTS quantity is called the DCH usage d. Following the calculating of stations that are various the price that is little is contemplate greatest as well as in WLAN program and the UMTS that is recommended. Once the first reaction box is obtained between customers and a software seeking support towards the period is called setup delay of information program and consist time, of PDP context for you to begin a TCP link Radio Stations Access Bearer. The period to get a demand between delivering and getting of the document FTP response-time and setup link can also be contained in it. The net site reaction time to get the html-page along side its element within the period that is necessary. While software is decreased to Gain Access To Community of WLAN to moving the advantages of information customers were calculated by both software delay effectiveness and are shown. In the simulation which suggests that uplink and downlink visitors of the UMTS was delivered to the focused route of UMTS UEs and the UWs were run within the UMTS DCH cell condition.
The simulation facets within this incorporation are software account, quantity of customers, entry style, and quantity of clients as the software users
Utilizing FTP Mounted Quality, Traffic Versions, the Instant Customer Lighting, Instant Customer Heavy was run. To get a specific customer more the other account could be cond. In one to hundred MB FTP file the simulation ran. Because of simulation facets both WLAN and the UMTS DCH stations decide the traffic route. The UW in WLAN style and UMTS can be used by Software of WLAN. With thirty customers to achieve access the simulation was run towards WLAN's funnel and also the customer entry style environment is rely on it. By mixing account of software loads could be calculated.
The end result may significantly influence manner of this selection's efficiency analysis. Analytic, dimension and simulation would be evaluation's efficiency manner as well as in price, necessary period and precision aren't just like. The precision it is eating period and is distributed by the answer of analytic and it is inexpensive when compared with the simulation. And this efficiency the evaluation of as a result of this simulation is prevented. Within the design confirmation procedure analytic technique can be used.
The instant information person creates traffic utilized by the software account that is OPNET™ to directly imitate. E-mail HTTP and users were utilized in software account. File-transfer process deliver document between customer and host. The document place and get order permit person for which move process is TCP automagically as well as for moving information. Kind of the order blend, inter demand period quality and also support would be FTP's characteristics. Easy email exchange process of e-mail software and pLACE make use of a standard TCP.
The e-mail software contains the characteristics are Kind Of mail size, Obtain Party Measurement, Deliver Party Measurement, Deliver inter-arrival Period and Support.
Web-browsing from the host site is saved from the customers including texts and artwork and is HTTP software. Numerous TCP connections are not close in outcome just one HTTP site request. The http contains the characteristics of Websites per Host, Host Choice-
Preliminary Repeat Likelihood, Pipe Stream Size, Site Qualities-
Kind Of Support Max idle period, item Dimension.
Accessibility community utilized may be the fundamental distinction between your three situations. These situations varied. Performance measurements here measure the efficiency.
In Current WLAN vs WLAN-UMTS Situation just one cable customer simulation operating with a person. The scenario's purpose may be the distinction interworked WLAN-UMTS program in the current one. The applying response-time information program set up period were examined for both methods. The system traffic load differs with dimension of FTP. The community can be accessed by a customer from the Current UMTS vs WLAN-UMTS situation by entry level within the simulation. In phrase of DCH utilisation and software response-time the methods that were above mentioned were examined. Through quantity of UWs obtaining UMTS's community about WLAN's simulation -UMTS. Customer operating FTP software steps the download response-time for both.
The OPNET Modeler™ 9.0 was employed for top's strategy style within this simulation. The framework of community situations and procedures, nodes are utilized inside it. The consumer identified and integral procedures that were OPNET™ were utilized in UW and UWLAN_AP's look. Condition plan uses procedure degree that explain the UWLAN_AP and UW_MAC_IF_Contro Control. The integral D signal and OPNET capabilities identifies the consumer defined procedure steps in most individual simulation. To achieve community entry through UMTS Node W the UW was increased. An alternate radio entry is shaped because of the Interworking the WLAN technologies into UMTS as developed by UWLAN_AP and the UW within the simulation frame-work.
Through UWLAN_AP to CN in the increases entry to Node W at UMTS customer entry through the RNC by UW WLAN client entry function. Initialisation of community reaches launch of the simulation. In UMTS network's certification when UW power-on for GMM_Attach process performing. UW is sign up for the providers of GPRS community in GPRS Mobility Management (GMM) Connect process by begin a PS signalling reference to the SGSN by informing SGSN. Clearly versions of GMM between SGSN and UE connect process within the UMTS design collection that is OPNET™.
Including the UMTS particular ATM software component, bodily (PHY), WLAN moderate access-control (MACINTOSH), a, and person-described procedure module along with a complete ATM collection. The conventional design group of PHY and WLAN MAC provides execution of process level's 802.11 standard. the ATM collection implements AAL5 and aTM methods. UMTS particular ATM software supplied by UMTS design that was specific set that routes UMTS and ATM QoS and between your aspects of UMTS handles the digital enterprise.
The Interworking of WLAN infrastructure BSS in the RNC may be the obligation of person-described UWLAN_AP_Control procedure component and by teardown and RB (Radio Bearer) installment and RAB (Stereo Access Bearer) by managing.
Another radio access community from WLAN interworked's from the handle logic into UMTS program is supplied by this component. To construct the access-control desk which execute GMM connect within the UWLAN_AP by UW within the Modified_GMM_Attach_Request concept. Utilizing the M-condition, triplet IMSI and mac-address provides WLAN_AP and an UW accessibility. PDP_Context_Activation and the methods are applied within this procedure. Three initialization claims and four handle have been in this state plan.
INIT: Noiseis could be gathered within the phase factors that are initializes within this phase procedure within the design-broad procedure for registry. Init2 routine home and delay stops to initialise ATM PVCs MAC.
Idle: Packages appearance from WLAN MAC and the ATM software are connected within this. The box related to UMTS concept form and UWs IMSI is obligation of the condition.
From_UW: the UW authoriss The indication of information by UMTS data traffic. Activate_PDP_Request and information package control and the concept are delivering towards the CN towards the ATM software.
From_CN: the UW authoriss The indication of information by UMTS data traffic. Activate_PDP_Request and information package control and the concept are delivering towards the WLAN software the UW.
ADM_CNTL: The motion necessary to consider by this within the signal is by ADM_CNTL. UWLAN_AP check monitoring of the UMTS approved UWs that's construct from the ADM_CTRL's access-control and coordinates within the setup process of RAB.
UE workstation model's inclusion to WLAN protocol stack for that customer entry setup of control reasoning that is required within the type of UW by UMTS design increases. Person and the UW_MAC_IF_Control -described handle logic. implements procedure component Each one is found within the below.
Highfidelity execution of transport and community layer is supplied by TCP/UDP/IP protocol stack. The UMTS control airplane the UMTS control airplane provides certification to UMTS PS site of UW and offers the depth execution of GMM component and functions between SGSN. UMTS Trusted Link Control and moderate access-control coating are applied and supplied by RLC/MAC component. the MAC part implements radio stations opening indicators. Radio stations software switching is between UMTS radio collection and the WLAN. The environment of Client Access Style to WLAN and WLAN MAC towards the UW_MAC_IF_Control when utilizing WLAN.
The primary community offers GGSN, the SGSN, customer area center, certification centre and connectivity and UWLAN_AP supplied by 8 ATM level software. The IP routing collection is modelled within the GGSN of IP gateway performance.
The Program Management (SM) methods and GPRS Mobility Management (GMM) would be the 2 program systems types of this method component. The box information process (PDP) referred to as box information program are proven because of numerous Support Request_* and PDP_Activate_* communications in the community of UMTS. Radio Access barer is set up between UE and its SGSN.
Approval and the confirmation of the areas make sure that the simulation is fixed in applying and consultant.
The procedure which decides that simulated model's capabilities will work properly is called confirmation design. this is included within by various segments screening performance, screening for reasonable mistakes, pc rules debugging. Because of the fun control of the customers the ODB (OPNET Simulation Debugger) offers analysis of the simulation through split things to provide info of items and activities. For each concept track is done for that confirmation of person and access-control process -defined certification. Within the appendix traces' outcomes is visible. The confirmation procedure is approved through person defied certification and the access-control process. The WLAN versions are examined that will be needed. For UMTS and numerous WLAN nodes for that proper procedure of confirmation simulation that is brief were run. Within the same manner both versions were confirmed. The OPNET™ Systems design paperwork outcomes were set alongside the simulation outcomes .
The outcomes by utilizing specialist instinct or actual program dimensions may verify the . Results and actual program dimensions of out simulations that are put is the greatest method to design verifying.
Wait is given by setup dependent in rear host community. There is in slow start algorithm connection setup a continuing delay thought. The PCF signalling link indication delays and delays thought to zero there node wait and were regarded in little setbacks.
Formula in matleb was outcomes and simulation answers are near to it.
Caused by their evaluation as well as simulation are mentioned within this section.
In simulation uncertainty's measure is expose within the processes. The turbine vegetables that are different provide various leads to the simulation. Every group of input variables were run at 5 various vegetables within this research's simulation type.
The only UW within the WLAN Customer outcomes for FTP download within the FTP software traffic is provided. For that all document dimensions a distinction is of 1 percentage in FTP response-time between optimum and minimal.
The following one is for that WLAN-UMTS situation that provides site reaction to HTTP.
Using the various seed worth the mean price of those simulations operates within this area using the all information items. In appendix the personal simulation that is entire can be found.
The UMTS program is set alongside the Present one using the scenario's benefits WLAN UMTS is shown within this area.
To carry on supplying solutions this integrating's primary purpose was the assets to free them this is exactly why the W examined for your for focused channels figures because of the community of UMTS limited assets and need for speech programs. Using the customer information of 20 wireless customers this check was performed using the FTP and E-Mail programs and particularly the mixture of internet. Procedure within UMTS's mobile the 20 UW nodes can be found within the standard program. For that first-run simulation UMTS was established for several 20 customers. Roughly sixty-five percentage of the DCH stations are decreased which may be observed in the below.
Both distinct traffic users answers are demonstrated within the given subsections:
In WLAN Client Access Style UW UE node changed running. The bandwidth was elevated for that hotspots information person within this WLAN integration. The reduction in FTP download's response-time could be offered within the below plan.
Whilst the focused stations aren't assigned dynamically this is exactly why the program utilized inadequate the accessible UMTS route. the RNC dynamically allocates the DCH stations.
This software suggests that the FTP and also the net site reaction download a substantial decrease WLAN access community is within the UMTS data providers. Carefully both process scalability is varied in by the amount of customers of instant information customers. The test's passing was in Wireless_Client_Light software account without any of information customers.
The above mentioned shows within the same chart the reaction of both were plotted too and that 2 to 30 customers were elevated within the instant information customers. Is small decrease which may be observed in the once the customers were more then-twenty eight then your efficiency of FTP.
Once the users were more than 25 then a sharp escalation is in the UMTS access community in software response-time since the community saturation encounter begins with 18 customers. Once the customers are risen to 30 a substantial boost is in request providers.
The UMTS signalling were integrated within the preliminary setup within the experience of UW as consequence of wait and also the first setup delay's efficiency measure are suggested within the program of UMTS and WLAN per box.
The WLAN infrastructure BSS with UMTS program management process interworked extra per box delay is shown within this area. FTP quality is increased carefully with by the system traffic load. Node of UW changed the node of WLAN in UMTS employing through WLAN system entry.
the WLAN customer gains the community entry through WLAN Access Indicate obtain 30 Super byte document in sixty-five seconds.
In typical selection of running problems within WLAN's interworked program - UMTS of all these situation. The UMTS signalling process was shown properly within this area.
In UMTS GMM support service setbacks are attached by customer entry style and PDP context service was shown within this area. With-in 300 meter twenty customers were attached to running and the WLAN access community through entry point-of WLAN.
The UMTS PDP context service procedure procedure was shown within this area. Required quality and the course traffic of providers account are contained in the PDP context service. Service Request process utilized RAB institution for that effective PDP.
Once the assets can be found because of the maintained greater priority traffic the low concern established PDP contexts within the setup and needs to delay.
The UMTS support demand procedure was shown properly within this area. In QoS the design could n't deactivates the institution of PDP framework and recycled the PDP framework for information series following. The process of support demand utilized in RAB institution associated upon information package bill with QoS.
The UMTS access network -AP utilized UMTS data's providers . UMTS parameterized traffic load abilities are interworked program of WLAN and UMTS display may be this section's purpose. Client entry change from zero UMTS and twenty UMTS and zero WLAN and 2 UMTS. The system load outcomes varying carefully.
the UWs quantity were elevated and significantly elevated in Queued demand support although for providers there have been 0 queued evaluating the UMTS community and also wait or the refused elevated as quantity increases for that required support.
The FTP software traffic outcomes comparable display within the provided. Opening UMTS system requires big for that opening UWs in FTP download response-time. Half and half accessed the WLAN access community and UMTS web site, respectively .
Traffic weight were more heavy somewhat in WLAN access system abilities that are shown within this area. To be able to strain the WLAN route document of dimension with higher item with higher level of e-mail request was parameterized in instant customer software account. As demonstrated within the below the amount of UWs differs from two to thirty for FTP download response-time.
The applying response-time has substantial effect beyond the incorporating person over 12 operating blend software traffic. Thirty customers working in FTP at thirty-seven moments download response-time.
Installing a web site with 2 seconds average per-user of the twenty customers as well as in sixteen moments when customers are raises to thirty
While load-time is offered by running both customers from two customers of WLAN is different which may be observed in the provided. WLAN weight increases with 1.2Mb/sec at maximum without any load to 4 MB /sec with two customers. The bandwidth that was required got from the users of gently packed from the WLAN access community and the twenty and 12 users made this outcome but achieved 7 MB/sec at to achieve saturation at WLAN route due to thirty customers and also maximum. In FCP style maximum through-put method of 11Mb/sec.
There was a community simulation design built using OPNET 10.0.A simulation . Fig. 4 demonstrates the community degree view of the network topology that is simulated. It's made up of a WLAN community (hotspot) of distance 150 yards situated inside an UMTS cell. Both systems are incorporated in the GGSN node. The topology selected for the simulation assessments matches to real world situations in which a WLAN network acts like a hotspot inside an UMTS system. Such locations are available in-office structures, airports, resorts, practice/coach channels, bars etc. WLAN is just an inexpensive broadband engineering; nevertheless it doesn't supply stop-to-end protection. The topology could be a great illustration of the situation in which a corporate person employs the WLAN in his office building so that as he measures from the building, he employs the UMTS system (in this instance UMTS). The WLAN network is at the UMTS network's protection. Another instance that displays this type of setup is really as follows: an average person on the road to his workplace may wander from the house WLAN system onto an UMTS system subsequently onto a public WLAN hotspot, state in a restaurant, after which back onto an UMTS community after which ultimately onto an enterprise WLAN. Hence the explanation of the 3G-WLAN architecture topology that is simulated strongly presents real consumer mobility situations. The various organizations of both systems (WLAN and 3G) explained within the topology are nevertheless, universal to all instances. The UMTS system consists of an UTRAN (RNC and Node W) along with an UMTS core community (SGSN and GGSN). Information on 3G community elements are defined in .
RNC: Radio Network Control SGSN: Serving GPRS Service Node
GGSN: Gateway GPRS Service Node WLAN: Serving GPRS Support Node.
Within the simulated system topology, the mobile node is just a Dual-Mode Final (DMT) with each an UMTS interface in addition to a WLAN software. We applied and have created the Changing Component integrated in to the process stacks was named by an application coating. The Changing Element also makes smart software choice within the existence of overlapped protection between WLAN and UMTS systems. Throughout the simulation's span, the forces that are DMT up within begin shifting and the UMTS cell in a pace of 30 miles/time. A predetermined flight is followed by the DMT. The flexibility of the DMT causes it to create handoffs in the UMTS towards the WLAN Community (upon entering the WLAN community) and viceversa (upon exiting in the WLAN coverage area). The UMTS systems are incorporated in the GGSN node. The WLAN network is recognized as another box information system.
Nevertheless, the WLAN protection area is wholly inside the UMTS coverage area. It finishes GPRS Connect signalling process signalling once the DMT forces on. The Following, DMT triggers a Box Data Protocol (PDP) framework within the GGSN. A PDP framework is just a reasonable affiliation between a 3G community along with a-mobile node. The PDP framework identifies elements for example QoS, protection, payment etc. Upon delivery of the Trigger PDP Context Demand, the SGSN sends a Stereo Access Bearer (RAB) Task Demand towards the RNC combined with the QoS required. The UTRAN performs entry control when the demand could be given to find out. The RNC delivers a Stereo Bearer Setup demand towards the DMT when the demand could be given.
On receipt of Radio Stations Bearer Setup demand, the funnel is set up by the DMT deliver a Stereo Bearer Total towards the RNC and as given within the request. It directs a RAB Assignment Reaction, including the given QoS once the RNC gets Radio Stations Bearer Total. Packages can be sent by the DMT in the SGSN towards the location on bill of the Trigger PDP Context Accept communication. Before achieving their location, these packages are first tunnelled through the offering RNC and GGSN (utilizing the GTP process), after which sent through the IP cloud for their destination node. The DMT subsequently goes while getting and sending packages having its UMTS software. These packages are sent through the UMTS core community. At the moment, the WLAN software of the DMT displays the actual level for WLAN beacon signals and is within the passive check style. The WLAN software gets beacon signals in the WLAN access level upon entering the WLAN protection region. This involves a handoff to be initiated by the DMT to be able to change towards the WLAN access software. The criterion for software choice utilized may be the bandwidth of the access community that is accessible. We applied and have created a Changing Element, that will be a really application coating accountable for producing the entry software changing choices, and wisely choosing an entry community within the existence of overlapped protection. The look of the signalling methods and also this Changing Component are described within the following areas. The GGSN maintains a desk mapping of every customeris Worldwide Mobile Subscriber Identifier (IMSI) and IP. It keeps delivering update communications towards the GGSN concerning the change in its IP whilst the person goes across various systems.
Once the DMT gets a beacon signal in the WLAN AP and enters the WLAN protection region, the WLAN_MAC coating determines the signal power of the signal that is received. When the power of the acquired transmission is more than the minimal box-party energy limit price, then your WLAN_MAC coating directs a note (including the BSSID ) towards the Changing Element, showing that the WLAN AP continues to be situated. Therefore that after the sign in the WLAN access level isn't steady enough (or includes a price less than the minimal box-party energy limit), the handoff towards the WLAN isn't started. Hence, of getting a fragile radio-signal in the border the situation is accounted for. Nevertheless, to the handoff towards the UMTS network, the recognition of the fragile WLAN sign leads to get a move in the WLAN to some UMTS system because the UMTS network is recognized as an Always On overlay network having a broader protection region covering the WLAN.
When the BSSIDs complement, the Changing Element directs a note towards the WLAN_MAC coating to start affiliation using the access point. Consequently, the WLAN AP is attached towards by the DMT. The DMT proceeds to make use of its radio interfaces both for a while: the UMTS software proceeds the WLAN software and party and also data-transmission proceeds to deliver and obtain signalling communications to keep company with an entry level. This method is known as handoff” that was “soft and eliminates any interruption of support while changing towards the WLAN software in the UMTS. The Changing Element directs an Update Concept towards the GGSN node using its new ip when the DMT is wholly linked to the WLAN AP. Afterwards, the GGSN routes the packages towards the WLAN access level and sent through the WLAN software to the DMT. The WLAN software registers the reduced-strength of the acquired transmission and moves these details towards the Changing Element once the DMT goes out-of protection of the WLAN community. A note is subsequently sent by the Changing Component towards the GGSN using its UMTS ip. Afterwards, the GGSN tunnels and sent the packages towards the RNC, which tracks them towards the UMTS software of the DMT. Once the handoff is in the WLAN towards the UMTS system a brief handoff delay is noticed. This method named once the aged connection must be-released before creating a brand new link “hard handover” happens.
The reason behind utilizing smooth handoff within the UMTS-to- WLAN and handoff within the WLAN-to- UMTS is basically because the network is done in this method the WLAN network is wholly inside the UMTS system. Therefore, any cellular system that's inside the WLAN network is officially also inside the UMTS system.
While moving to WLAN system consequently, smooth handoff may be used. In this instance, until an association is wholly proven through the WLAN software the cellular system may proceed to make use of the UMTS interface. Nevertheless, while shifting in to the UMTS system from WLAN network, the cellular system drops its link in the WLAN network because it goes from the WLAN coverage area. A short while delay is between the institution of the UMTS link and also the lack of the WLAN connection.
In this instance, the cellular system can't make use of the WLAN link until an UMTS link is established prior to the UMTS link is completely proven because the cellular system goes from the WLAN region. Hence it's difficult to make use of smooth handoff in this instance and handoff must be applied.
We examined the efficiency of our double-style radio access process design and also the Changing Component through fresh simulations utilizing numerous kinds of programs including: voiceoverip (VoIP) in GSM protected structure, FTP, and HTTP (internet browsing). The guidelines calculated contain finish-to- end supply wait, document post time, HTTP site reaction time when shifting to a different in one community. FTP runs are cond having a continuous quality of 85000 Kilobytes. Real time VoIP moves were cond having a continuous box measurement of 33 bytes. for HTTP exchanges was 3000 bytes site measurement employed.
Table 4 displays the reaction times acquired within the WLAN systems and also the UMTS. On a typical 20.071 seconds, the FTP period is within the UMTS coverage region so that as the consumer changes indication through the WLAN software and enters in to the WLAN protection, the response-time that is post falls to on average 0.6 seconds. We acquired comparable cutbacks in the event of finish-to-end delays acquired for speech (typical of 0.348sec in UMTS network and 0.005 sec in WLAN network) and HTTP site access period (average of 1.268 seconds within the UMTS network and 0.032 seconds within the WLAN network). The drop-in the reaction situations is forty-four kilo bit-per minute provided by the UMTS system and probably because of the greater bandwidth eleven mega-bit per-second when compared with a hundred.
The handoff delay experienced when shifting over the WLAN and UMTS systems. The handoff delay prices display that there's hardly any when changing the entry software wait while shifting from UMTS. The reason being of the execution of smooth handover by which data-transmission it has obtained a subscription confirmation and proceeds to occur through the UMTS software before node is wholly linked to the WLAN AP. Then traffic is directed by your Changing Component . Because the WLAN community is wholly inside an UMTS cell, it's feasible whenever a person goes right into a WLAN coverage area to attain a clean handoff. Nevertheless, whenever a person goes from the WLAN protection region, the WLAN software shows the Changing Element and registers a fragile beacon. This causes an IP update information to be sent by the Changing Component towards the GGSN. Because it takes time for that GGSN to get this concept and revise the present IP of the DMT, there is a little handoff delay experienced. Nevertheless, no wait because the UMTS software is energetic is nevertheless experienced by traffic about the UMTS uplink station and certainly will be instantly used-to transfer information. Packages received from the web are somewhat delayed. Nevertheless, this wait doesn't expose a sizable company interruption time and is very little. Your applied and recommended style structure that allows easy internetworking between UMTS systems has many advantages. The WLAN could be used being an independent community and mixed possession of the systems isn't needed. Next, the strategy doesn't need any adjustments to current 802.11 access details. Next, because all traffic moves through the GGSN node that is main, it's also feasible to make use of certification systems and typical payment. The reduced handoff included when shifting across these systems makes running smooth and totally clear towards the cellular customers and it is hence suitable to aid real time programs.
Numerous methods for 3G systems and adding WLANs have now been suggested within the literature. Several of those methods contain Cellular-IP , Gateway , Emulator , limited coupling, free coupling , etc. However, all these methods combines the WLAN and 3G systems utilizing the incorporation stage as possibly SGSN or GGSN.
For instance, Mobile-IP and Entrance methods derive from the GGSN-incorporation (utilizing the Uniform program). The emulator strategy is dependant on the SGSN incorporation (utilizing the Gb program). Moreover, limited coupling is just a SGSN-centered strategy where-as Free coupling is just a GGSN- . Additional faculties of those methods have now been defined in Table 1. Therefore, adding 3G systems with WLANs takes a style that possibly employs even the GGSN or SGSN whilst the integration stage. Prior research initiatives (Tsao et al.  etc.) have examined the efficiency of UMTS-WLAN integration methods regarding the handoff latency experienced by customers while shifting in one community to a different. As opposed to such prior initiatives, the primary benefits of the function are the following:
We've examined both fundamental integration architectures (SGSN-based versus GGSN based) from the style viewpoint. We examined the efficiency of those integration methods regarding the finish-to-end box latency experienced when consumer traffic from WLAN and UMTS systems is sent through the SGSN (Uniform interface) and also the GGSN (Gb interface). The latency experienced from the packages in each situation is affected from the procedures done about the various kinds of WLAN access points linking the GGSNs and also the SGSN. Your results demonstrate the finish-to-end box latency is gloomier when GGSN can be used whilst the incorporation stage when compared with the SGSN-incorporation because of the additional control expenses included in the specific WLAN access level utilized in the situation.
We've suggested a handoff method that defines a diminished handoff delay when compared with current GGSN-based handoff methods (Cellular IP, Gateway, etc.) while switching system entry from 3G (UMTS) to WLANs. By applying smooth handoff methods your strategy defines a smooth community move between mobile and instant neighborhood systems. Fig. 6 displays a contrast of the delays acquired applying various kinds of 3G- . The recommended handoff strategy produced the handoff delay that was cheapest therefore showing greater efficiency when compared with formerly proposed handoff methods.
We've mentioned execution and the look of the application coating named the Changing Component that allows double-style user devices to do smooth handovers across mobile and Instant Neighborhood Systems utilizing the handoff method.
UMTS systems and integrated WLAN gain customers with equally high speed connection in addition to common protection. Improvement of architectures that permit interoperability along side smooth roaming service between these systems is just a problem today. Within this function, we examined and have suggested, applied structure to get a double interface node that uses a powerful software switching algorithm-based upon the acquired signal power of the WLAN beacon transmission.
The method allows easy handoff procedure while shifting across heterogeneous systems for example UMTS to occur. The efficiency analysis of the structure exhibits minimum handoff wait while changing from UMTS to WLAN systems
Along with a somewhat greater handoff delay sustained changing radio use of the UMTS software and when shifting from the WLAN protection. The little setbacks acquired get this to structure possible to be used in both realtime in addition to low realtime conditions. Another function of our style strategy is the fact that it's centered on easy IP providers and doesn't need mechanisms for easy or the usage of Cellular IP connection.
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UMTS UE FTP Download Response-Time with FTP quality
UW (WLAN Style)
Quantity of UEs
Number of customers
No of UWs
Number of UWs
No of UEs
No of UEs
No of UWs
Number of 14 12 10 08 06 04 02
Seed 1 0.2384 0.2444 0.2395 0.2450 0.2493 0.2479 0.2510
Seed 2 0.2418 0.2456 0.2409 0.2451 0.244 0.2496 0.2513
Seed 3 0.2409 0.2453 0.2410 0.2440 0.2443 0.2428 0.2432
Seed 4 0.2384 0.2444 0.2483 0.2392 0.2428 0.2476 0.2619
Seed 5 0.2428 0.2425 0.2470 0.2511 0.2527 0.2494 0.2432
95% CI: 0.2380 0.2430 0.2383 0.2396 0.2417 0.2440 0.2405
Mean: 00.240 00.244 00.243 00.244 00.246 00.247 00.250
00.242 00.245 00.248 00.250 00.251 00.250 00.259
WLAN Client FTP Download Response-Time vs FTP quality
Quality 1B 100KB 250KB 800KB 1.5MB 4MB 7MB 12MB
Seed 1 0.195 1.178 2.358 6.338 11.718 30.278 52.458 89.958
Seed 2 0.189 1.191 2.171 6.351 11.731 30.291 52.471 89.971
Seed 3 0.184 1.204 2.184 6.364 11.744 30.369 52.484 89.784
Seed 4 0.191 1.069 2.249 6.429 11.609 30.304 52.549 89.849
Seed 5 0.198 1.095 2.275 6.455 11.635 30.395 52.575 89.875
Mean: 0.191 1.147 2.247 6.387 11.687 30.327 52.507 89.887
95% CI: 0.184 1.071 2.153 6.323 11.611 30.263 52.443 89.790
0.198 1.223 2.341 6.451 11.763 30.391 52.571 89.984
FTP quality 15MB 20MB 30MB 40MB 60MB 80MB 100MB
Seed 1 112.518 149.798 223.938 298.058 448.738 599.358 749.735
Seed 2 112.531 149.831 223.931 298.071 448.751 599.371 749.709
Seed 3 112.409 149.624 223.744 297.884 448.564 599.184 749.644
Seed 4 112.344 149.715 223.855 297.955 448.609 599.249 749.791
Seed 5 112.435 149.689 223.809 297.949 448.635 599.275 749.778
Mean: 112.447 149.731 223.855 297.983 448.659 599.287 749.731
95% CI: 112.350 149.627 223.753 297.885 448.557 599.190 749.658
112.544 149.835 223.957 298.081 448.761 599.384 749.804
UW (WLAN Style)
Quality 1B 100KB 250KB 800KB 1.5MB 4MB 7MB 12MB
Seed 1 0.042 0.395 0.770 2.010 3.410 8.850 15.272 25.990
Seed 2 0.026 0.363 0.737 1.977 3.377 8.817 15.240 25.957
Seed 3 0.027 0.331 0.705 1.945 3.345 8.824 15.208 25.925
Seed 4 0.040 0.369 0.744 1.984 3.384 8.785 15.246 25.964
Seed 5 0.032 0.505 0.679 1.919 3.519 8.759 15.182 25.899
Mean: .033 0.393 0.727 1.967 3.407 8.807 15.229 25.947
95% CI: 0.025 0.310 0.683 1.923 3.324 8.763 15.186 25.903
0.042 0.475 0.771 2.011 3.490 8.851 15.273 25.991
quality 15MB 20MB 30MB 40MB 60MB 80MB 100MB
Seed 1 32.410 43.112 64.530 85.950 128.790 171.604 214.359
Seed 2 32.377 43.080 64.497 85.917 128.757 171.572 214.424
Seed 3 32.384 43.048 64.465 85.885 128.725 171.540 214.385
Seed 4 32.345 43.022 64.439 85.859 128.764 171.579 214.417
Seed 5 32.319 43.086 64.504 85.924 128.699 171.514 214.450
Mean: 32.367 43.070 64.487 85.907 128.747 171.562 214.407
95% CI: 32.323 43.026 64.443 85.863 128.703 171.518 214.363
32.411 43.113 64.531 85.951 128.791 171.606 214.451
No of UW 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Seed 1 0.251 0.248 0.249 0.245 0.239 0.244 0.242 0.241 0.241 0.239
Seed 2 0.251 0.250 0.245 0.245 0.241 0.246 0.241 0.240 0.240 0.241
Seed 3 0.243 0.243 0.244 0.244 0.241 0.245 0.243 0.241 0.241 0.240
Seed 4 0.262 0.248 0.243 0.251 0.248 0.244 0.241 0.240 0.239 0.244
Seed 5 0.243 0.249 0.253 0.251 0.247 0.243 0.243 0.241 0.241 0.241
Mean: 00.25 00.24 00.24 00.24 00.24 00.24 00.24 00.24 00.24 00.24
95% CI: 0.241 0.244 0.242 0.243 0.238 0.243 0.241 0.240 0.239 0.239
0.260 0.251 0.252 0.252 0.248 0.246 0.243 0.241 0.242 0.243
UMTS Style (UWs) Number of Customers Vs FTP Download Response-Time
No of UWs 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Seed 1 0.596 0.543 0.563 0.543 0.538 0.542 0.536 0.529 0.533 0.533
Seed 2 0.557 0.586 0.547 0.540 0.547 0.551 0.542 0.525 0.533 0.533
Seed 3 0.540 0.527 0.562 0.546 0.534 0.545 0.538 0.529 0.527 0.532
Seed 4 0.557 0.535 0.547 0.535 0.545 0.541 0.557 0.529 0.535 0.527
Seed 5 0.540 0.548 0.568 0.556 0.545 0.539 0.525 0.525 0.523 0.524
Mean: 00.55 00.54 0 0.55 0 0.54 00.54 00.54 00.54 00.52 00.53 00.53
95% CI: 0.529 0.520 0.545 0.534 0.535 0.538 0.525 0.525 0.524 0.524
0.586 0.576 0.570 0.554 0.549 0.549 0.554 0.530 0.536 0.535
(Heavy Traffic Load) Quantity Of UWs Vs Web Site Response-Time
No of UWs 2 6 10 16 20 23 25 28 30
Seed 1 1.140 1.347 1.516 1.538 1.950 2.718 4.546 7.947 15.663
Seed 2 1.298 1.357 1.347 1.343 1.754 2.649 4.546 8.355 15.565
Seed 3 1.349 1.439 1.353 1.651 1.836 2.789 4.160 8.177 15.734
Seed 4 1.356 1.354 1.444 1.441 1.941 2.860 4.548 7.961 15.854
Seed 5 1.256 1.239 1.738 1.832 1.945 2.757 4.526 7.965 15.562
Mean: 1.280 1.353 1.480 1.561 1.885 2.754 4.466 8.081 15.676
95% CI: 1.170 1.263 1.281 1.325 1.776 2.657 4.254 7.857 15.523
1.390 1.442 1.679 1.797 1.994 2.852 4.678 8.305 15.828