A literature review isn't an annotated bibliography where you summarize each post which you have reviewed. It goes well beyond simply summarizing professional literature while an overview of the what you've got read is included within the literature review. It contains a critical analysis of the relationship among distinct works and centers around a particular theme of interest, and linking this research to your own work. It may be composed as a standalone paper or to supply a theoretical framework and justification for a research study (including a thesis or dissertation).
Step by step guide
These guidelines are adapted mainly from Galvan (2006). Galvan summarizes an extremely clear, step by step strategy that's very helpful as you compose your review to use. I've incorporated some other suggestions within this guide, especially in proposing distinct technology tools which you should consider in assisting you to arrange your review. In the sections from Measure 6-9 what I've included is the outline of those measures just as described by Galvan. In addition, I supply links by the end of the guide to resources as you compose your review and which you should use so that you can search the literature. Advice Fluency - Literature Review:
Measure 1: Review APA guidelines
Read the links supplied below on APA guidelines to ensure you understand the common core components of the best way to write in APA style: specifically, pay attention to general file guidelines (e.g. font, borders, spacing), title page, outline, body, text citations, quotes.
Step 2: Decide on a theme
It's going to help you greatly if your theme to your literature review is the one on which you mean to do your closing M.Ed. Job, or is somehow associated with the subject of your final job. Nevertheless, you may decide on any subject that is scholarly.
Measure 3: Identify the literature you will review:
Using related databases, search for literature sources using Google Scholar and in addition searching using Furl (search all sources, for example, Furl reports of other Furl members). Some suggestions for narrowing your search and identifying appropriate literature:
Focus on one which you know or an overall descriptor from your database thesaurus is a defined descriptor according to previous work which you did in this area. You are going to must experiment with different searches, like restricting your search to descriptors that appear just in the file names, or in both record title and in the abstract.
Redefine your subject if desired: as you seek you may immediately learn if the subject which you are reviewing is overly extensive. Attempt to narrow it to some particular area of interest within the wide place which you have selected (remember: this is only an opening literature review for Educ 7001). It's wise, included in your literature search, to try to find present literature reviews that have previously been written with this subject.
Included in your search, make sure you identify theorists and classic or landmark studies as these supply you with a framework/context to your study. If you must you may also enter references manually.
Measure 4: Examine the literature
Once you found and have identified the posts on your review, you have to examine them before you start composing and arrange them:
Review the posts: Hint: you might want to record the notes which you take directly, as you skim the posts. Having your notes makes it simple to arrange your notes afterwards, although it's possible for you to choose notes or into a word processing file instead or at the same time as using RefWorks.
Once more, it is not useless to input these records into your RefWorks record. It's possible for you to record the subjects in an identical carton as before (User 1) or use User 2 carton for the subject(s) under which you've got selected to put this post.
Choose the format where you are going to take notes as you read the posts (as mentioned previously, it is possible to try this in RefWorks. Notice vital data which you might want to use to your own review in the opening.
Pick useful quotations which you might want to include in your review. Important: If you reproduce the exact words from an article, make sure to mention the page number as you may need this should you choose the quotation when you compose your review (as direct quotes should always come with page references). Note: when you write the review, use quotes quite sparingly, although you may accumulate a great number of quotations during the note taking stage of your review. The rule I follow would be to quote when when some essential significance would be lost in translation if I were to paraphrase the words of the first writer, or if using the authentic words adds particular emphasis to your point that I'm making.
Emphases, strengths & weaknesses: Each post which you read will have different emphases, strengths since distinct research studies focus on different facets of the problem being examined. and weaknesses. Your character as a reviewer would be to assess what you read, in order that your review just isn't a just description of posts that are different, but instead a critical analysis that makes sense of the group of posts that you will be reviewing. Critique the research methodologies used in the studies, and differentiate between declarations (the writer's view) and real research findings (derived from empiric evidence).
Identify important trends or patterns: As you read an assortment of posts in your subject, you should make note of patterns and trends as reported in the literature. Generalizations can be made by your evaluation across most studies, but should additionally note inconsistencies and over time.
These differences will be significant that you address as you plan and write your review.
Identify relationships among studies: note relationships such as which studies were watershed ones that caused following studies in precisely the same place, among studies. It's also possible to note that studies fall into distinct classes (classes which you see appearing or ones which might be already discussed in the literature). When you write your review, you should address distinct groups and these relationships and discuss related studies.
Keep your review focused on your own issue: make sure the posts you find are important and directly associated with your subject. As you take notes, record which particular facets of the post you happen to be reading are related to your own theme (as you read you may develop key descriptors that you could record in your notes that can allow you to arrange your findings when you come to write up your review).
Assess your benchmarks for coverage and money: You've got to determine at what point you're completed with gathering new resources so which you can give attention to writing up your findings although you always have the option to discover more posts on your own subject. Nevertheless, before beginning writing, you must assess your reference list to ensure that it has reported the present work and is up so far. Usually if they will have importance in shaping the way of the area a review will cover but should also refer to any watershed studies prior to the time. You should defend why you've got selected these rather than more present ones, if you include studies ahead of the previous five years that aren't watershed studies.
Step 5: Summarize the literature in concept or table map format
Galvan (2006) advocates constructing tables as a key means to assist you to summary, coordinate, and summarize your findings, and indicates that including at least one of the tables which you create may be helpful in your literature review. Each must come with an evaluation that summarizes, interprets and synthesizes the literature which you have charted in the table should you contain tables included in your review.
The advantage of using Excel is that it empowers one to sort your findings according to many different variables (e.g. form by date, and then by writer; form by methodology and then date)
Cases of tables that could be related to your own review:
Step 6: just before composing your review Synthesize the literature
Utilizing the records which you took and overview tables, create a plan of one's evaluation that is final. Listed here are the crucial actions as reported by Galvan (2006: 71-79) Think about speech and your objective before you begin to create. In this Educ 7001 initial literature review's case, your original objective would be to offer a summary of the subject that's in your selected section of emphasis for you, showing your knowledge of crucial works and ideas of curiosity. You're also developing abilities in publishing and researching, to supply a basis which you'll develop in your M.Ed in following programs. And ultimately in your project. Inside your ultimate task your literature review /or creating framework to get a research that you simply did and should show your order of one's area of research.
Consider the way you reassemble your notes: strategy the way you may arrange your results right into a distinctive evaluation of the image that you simply have taken inside your notes. Essential: A literature evaluation isn't number of annotations (as an annotated bibliography). Galvan (2006:72) catches the distinction between an annotated bibliography along with a literature critique perfectly: "...essentially, like explaining bushes whenever you should be explaining a forest. In the literature review's case, you're truly developing using the bushes you present in the literature you study a fresh forest, that you may develop."
Produce a subject format that traces your argument: first show the audience your point or argument (or dissertation); your story that uses must clarify and warrant your type of argument. You might find this program Motivation helpful in applying out your debate (and when you've produced this in an idea chart type, Motivation allows you to transform this to some text outline simply by hitting the "format" option). This could subsequently be released right into a Microsoft Word file.
Action 7: Composing the evaluation (Galvan, 2006: 81-90)