Popular music peace uganda


May audio that is common may play a role in peacebuilding and conflict change? This sort of issue has began to produce a good deal of discussion for peacebuilding students and pracitioners.  All of The current works have centered on the part of artwork in general without taking a look at specific type of artwork or specific style within one type of artwork like audio and evaluating its efforts to developing a peaceful culture. This document is definitely a try to display just the part common audio may perform. It centered on an investigation performed in Uganda in Gulu area. Results demonstrate that audio is enjoying with a supporting part that will be possibly little-known or less acknowledged. Within this document, I claim that common audio is enjoying with a substantial part. I talk about how popular audio is adding and cultivating problems of conflict change and peacebuilding while counting on record evaluation, exams of â??peace musicâ?? Words, focus-group dialogue using the government authorities and industry interviews, previously LRA artists, troops and also the civilian populace.

A. History to Northern Uganda conflict

Northern Uganda has been for over 2 decades around turmoil. This turmoil is between your government of Uganda (GoU) and also the Lordâ??s Resistance Army (LRA).The turmoil is â??rooted in a well known revolt from the Leader Yoweri Museveniâ??s government.â??[2] however when she was beaten in 1987, Joseph Kony overran the layer of management. He changed the HSM in Khartoum with assistance of the Federal Government of Sudan in to the LRA; the LRA have not been unable to trigger damage about the civilian populace in Uganda.

The conflict's causes are grounded in instant and historic elements. These contains: The colonial heritage which split south and the northern. Disappointment of the President Museveni to recognition peace agreement he closed in 1985 in Nairobi and lastly the NRA assault triggered about the Acholi when Museveni got over[3].

Since 1993, there has been numerous peace talksâ?? initiatives to finish the turmoil but all didn't provide an enduring peace since â??the governmentâ??s insufficient firm political will behind a settlement technique and also the LRAâ??s change to Sudan for hands re-materials.â??[7]

The newest try to finish the turmoil continues to be the Juba Peace Talks in 2006. This peace talks occured the administrative centre of South Sudan, in Juba also Dr. Riek Machar vice president mediated it. Within this peace discussions, all components of the plan were authorized[8]. However the ultimate peace arrangement hasn't been authorized. The LRA's infamous chief declined to signal the ultimate peace arrangement hence tossing the peace process. This indicates the fall of the peace talks and led from the three nations: Sudan, Uganda and DRC to a military offensive on LRA.

Peace-building projects?

Currently there's comparable peace since the combined offensive of the three countries has damaged the LRA. Several civilian communities within the 53 ideologies in Uganda are time for their towns to repair their lives. Both organizations and the government are placing infrastructures: streets, colleges and wellness facilities to help issues resettle's previous patients. But you will find combined sensation one of the populace not because not ultimate peace arrangement continues to be authorized from the conflict events or if they may have an enduring peace. Among the crucial problems in northern Uganda in this move is just how to guarantee victimsâ?? justice but â??Most differentiate peace over justice and display indications of unwillingness countenance issue of responsibility.â??[10] Since 2005, GoU through the Amnesty Percentage have now been trying to resettle several LRA the ex-combatants and backed communityâ??s methods to nearby means of forgiveness, peacebuilding and reconciliation.

W. History to part of MICHAELusic in Acoli culture

In Acoli culture, a key location is occupied by audio. â??Music may be the center of the culture.â??[15]

â??Musicians and performers were highly-valued and respected due to their ability as well as their capability to entertain.â??[20].

Audio in Acoli was primarily by a person or perhaps a team performing and enjoying musical instrument like â??lokeme (flash keyboard), ajar, a steel percussion device, and occasionally small drums (bul).â??[22]

Increase of Gopular Peace MICHAELusic in Northern Uganda

It was an evidence the conflicting events had didn't solve their issues whilst the battle in Uganda increased. There is complete dysfunction in conversation between your events. This come into insufficient knowledge and assurance of each party.[24]. This audio is manufactured in â??modernâ?? Galleries across Uganda. Sounds are created on computer-aided beats. There's broad utilization of contemporary musical devices within the audio. The words are aimed towards the civilian populace in Uganda and periodically towards the government and the diasporas and global community.

As much as 70-100 peace tunes are produced [29].

D. Literature Review

Within the last decade, there has been some efforts to exhibit that audio may be used in peacebuilding.[32] The scarcity of literature about the effect of audio for conflict change and peacebuilding stays is just a significant problem since stakeholders are restricted from producing the best choice on audio may work as something of conflict transformation and peacebuilding.

Probably the many innovative focus on audio and peacebuilding up to now is: Audio and Conflict Transformation: Harmonies and Dissonances in Geopolitics.[35] Furthermore, June Boyce demonstrates â??several versions helpful when it comes to the hyperlink between audio and peaceâ?? And lastly Johan Galtung shows how audio may be used for peace. He investigates â??the beneficial and uniting energy music.â??

Ledarachâ??s Moral Imagination: the-Art and Spirit of Peace-Building[36], empathizes utilization of imagination in peacebuilding. He employed numerous illustrations to aid his reasons about art.

Lastly, Lisa Schirchâ??s Routine and Symbols in Geacebuilding additionally facilitates the watch of imagination in peacebuilding.[39]

There are several posts which display of utilizing music the chance. Lisa Schirch and Michael Shank,[42] Their evaluation justifies the part of artwork while in the same period it's helpful on which type of artwork to use for telling peacebuilders and at what phase of turmoil.

Lesley Pruitt examines how audio may subscribe to peace that is good [44] She provides that party and audio can lead by both designers and market to improvement of fresh identification which is this identification might help in procedure for conversation. Consequently, designers through their audio may behave as â??mediatorsâ?? Simply because they produce new details and itâ??s this new identification that may promote conversation between your conflicting events.

Furthermore, Alba Sanfeliu[45] covers audio in peacebuilding's part. She comments â??Music is definitely an elegant vocabulary which allows us to convey what's occurring around us in several feelings, and also to replicate the changing times and also the scenario by which we stay. It's inseparable from our interpersonal, governmental, financial and ethnic reality.â?? She provides that audio can also be a kind of conversation. â??Lyrics reinforce the concept the writer really wants to convey, focusing the feeling of the song.â?? Mores especially she touches on part of common audio and states that â??many performers and teams have constructed tunes with styles associated with peace, individually getting concerned giving shows in solidarity with numerous cultural causes and producing their audio right into a type of spokesperson and device for peace.â?? She proves by fighting like a device for conflict transformation for further pursuit of audio.


To conclude, the examined works offer fascinating observations in to the part of artwork generally on peacebuilding and conflict change but you can find insufficient enough in peacebuilding and detailing how certain style like audio as well as in specific, common audio plays a role in struggle transformation.

To start with, all of the reports completed on this causes it to be very hard to replicate the real scenario on the floor and part of audio were centered on record evaluations.

Furthermore, the examined works broadly concentrate on audio or artwork in general. None centers around music.

Lastly, these reports were centered on facts in various areas of the planet a number of that are somewhat distinct from these in Uganda. This research efforts to exhibit the effect of common audio about the conflicting events in Uganda and just how it has assisted in peacebuilding and conflict change in Uganda.

N. Objective and Ways Of the Research

Study was completed in Gulu Town and 2 internally displaced individuals (IDP) ideologies of Amuru and Odek[49].

In most the three places[51]. Meeting instructions were not close and offered participants chance to talk out his/ her brain. It was favored to be able to have more details about perceptions, understanding and views of individuals concerning the part common audio in peacebuilding.

There have been 5 focus-group conversations with 30 individuals (23 were former LRA troops and five woman) to comprehend peopleâ??s viewpoint concerning the part common audio may or has performed in peacebuilding[52]. the investigator readily moderated the discussions and their sights were readily stated by every person throughout the conversations.

Lastly, all available related literatures about the subject were examined. These data were got from numerous libraries including Gulu Public Library, Humanrights Emphasis, Gulu College and library.

ELIZABETH. Effect of Audio in Northern Uganda

Audio and turmoil has have been linked however the part audio may perform in peacebuilding and conflict change haven't always been analyzed though you will find fresh and rising work-in the area[53]. Consequently, to say that audio encourage peacebuilding and may change struggle might be an exaggeration disappointment to identify the part that audio may perform in peacebuilding and conflict change would be an exaggeration details.

From interviews with government authorities in Northern Uganda and outcomes of focus-group conversations, it's possible to claim that audio is enjoying with a supporting part towards the conflict change and peacebuilding in Uganda. Common audio is adding by: Achieving The government leaders with communications to interact within the peace process, realizing the federal government initiatives while challenging to get a fast finish to peace process, representing the federal government problems through assessment of the Acoli culture before and following the battle hence producing the federal government leaders to work with changes and lastly common audio has turned into a device of conversation that's today a continuing indication for government about its responsibilities for peace.

a. Government

In Uganda audio has been used-to achieve both government leaders to interact in peaceful quality of the turmoil. It has been completed through name-dropping[58]. The effect of name-dropping is located to produce stress on some commanders to make use of their jobs since artists represent the speech of the folks to interact in peace process using the LRA. This makes the commanders get in touch with the leader asking using the LRA for relaxing events. Based on one government chief:

Northern Uganda is just a small area. My title is called by every time artists within their tunes, personally I think I required to work with peace. The tracks talk to myself. It appeals in an unique method to me. It shows me like a chief who are able to make a move . This produces the motives for me personally to work with peace. In my experience, a speech of 1 artist is just a speech of the folks suffering within the internally displaced peopleâ??s ideologies[59]

Consequently, name-dropping hasbeen an ideal way of pressing on a few of the commanders to work with their people. â??It is just a drive element for that commanders. Nothing is asked by it from their store but to make use of their placement for the suffering people's benefit.â??[60] name-dropping comes with an ideal charm for various commanders in an individual degree to find a finish to clash. the proven fact compounds this charm that the tunes have been in the vocabulary the commanders comprehend, the commanders are well known in the area and also the tunes brings wealthy, sincere and effective conditions that continues within the existence of the people about. This inspires some commanders to interact in peacebuilding.

Furthermore, in a area to the NRM government that is present [68]. Internally displaced guy sums up in one single declaration this:

While artists within their tunes freely praise politicians within our neighborhood, this sets the club so large for their celebration as well as politicians since the songs are performed about the FM channels over the Uganda. This isn't reputation and only praises due to their function, politicians realize that as voters we make use of they to be judged by the same tunes and thus some are operating very difficult for peace.[69]

Provided a breeding ground like northern Uganda, that has been unfavorable to the present government due to the long-running turmoil, individuals have real issues again their government[72] It acknowledges and praises politicians and also the government, while in the same period it sets a goal in order for them to accomplish hence resulting in wedding of some governmental leaders within the peace process.

Moreover, the popular performers have also not spared the spiritual leaders. They requested to complete more within their capability and have been designated for dedication to peace in Uganda. Artists like Bosmic Otim, among the first popular designers to arise in northern Uganda in early 2000 with high recognition continued in his tune, Also Paco, to understand one spiritual head for his extraordinary bravery and dedication on employed by peace. He points the effect of the battle about the Acoli culture out. He indicates towards the government to look at the non violent technique of the spiritual leaders. He calls since disappointment of the technique that has caused good discomfort about the civilian populace for a non violence technique. He continues in his words to express â??Letâ??s discover illustration from Nelson Mandela who struggled for peace non-violent, let's observe illustration from Bishop Mark Baker Ochola, who's focusing chat peace since battle escalates the demise tollâ??

of delivering peace communications from the popular designers this type of innovative method have not already been ineffective. Common audio have now been ready to speak peopleâ??s desire to have peace towards the spiritual leaders. â??Popular music is becoming extra phone to safeguard their flocks from wolves.â??[76].

Moreover, their tunes have been used by common artists like a relative device for Uganda particularly Acoli culture. This assessment is dependant on evaluating it using the culture during battle and searching back prior to the war at Acoli culture. This evokes pictures of authorities that are previous as more lucrative compared to present regimen[79].

Some common tunes are specific symbolism of authorities failure.[82] 

This thorough adjustment of audio to evaluate Acoli communities is devastating for that picture of NRM management and the federal government. It's required some government leaders to complete more by guarding its people while in the same period developing a job that peace may be the supreme objective the federal government needs to accomplish to be able to prevent evaluations using the previous routines to save lots of its picture. Dida Moses, in his tune Too Oroma-california, request a rhetorical problem and would go to display the enduring, â??Our people, religious leaders what do we do? Battle that began since hasn't finished, Powerful houses have collapsed, Viewing people work due to their lifestyles is painfulâ?¦Cutting peopleâ??s thighs, killing is really unpleasant, Kids are struggling, kids sleep eager, Kids rest with covers, kids do visit college, Nowadays I hope to Lord, the price of death is also muchâ??

In certain of those tunes, the federal government determination to Uganda is asked ultimately. The mention of the pre-Acoli culture creates pictures of greater times of independence, education, capability to fulfill a peaceful culture and most importantly essential requirements under [84]. This produces more to interact in peace discussions to be able to provide the best desire of the folks, peace.

Lastly, advise and common audio has been used-to talk government of its responsibility for peace in an area where individuals approved the status quo and appear to have quit after 2 decades of battle. Artists haven't quit. They've extended to advise the federal government and produce understanding concerning the battle in northern Uganda, nationally and internationally.  Common audio is just a continuous â??burdenâ?? And memory to Acoli authorities leaders.[86] These peace shows provide popular performers from all around the nation in Uganda to perform for that IDP areas for peace.

In April 2004 feted Ugandan musician Jose Chameleone joined up another famous Ugandan artist, with Rich Kaweesa, in a peace repair project [ 87]

In these musical shows nothing else is sung about but peace.[90] Consequently, common audio is becoming method of telling the federal government on which people wishes while in the same period making consciousness and creating a coalition for peace within the northern Uganda which creates public strain on the government to find an alternate for the clash

Consequently of LRA for peace and this continuous indication and phone towards the authorities, the authorities of South and Uganda Sudan came to identify the part of audio incompatible change and peacebuilding hence showing the ability of common music. Loketo Lee, was acknowledged towards the peace process for his exceptional efforts. Their contribution was initially experienced outside their own country-Uganda to Southern Sudan and Sudanese vice president, â??Salvar Kiirâ?¦handed Loketo Lee a Peace Prize for his factor, through his audio, towards the countryis peace process.â??[93]. This factors towards the part audio may in a culture like Uganda.

W. Lordâ??s Resistance Army

In Uganda audio has been employed for training and telling the LRA on amnesty[95] These communications that are audio have experienced some impact through radio stations on LRA. According one person, a LRA foot-soldier to:

Super FM has not been useless for amnesty communications. Some tunes as well as the spiritual leaders were in allowing people understand what amnesty was about really important. While our commanders recognized we listened to amnesty communications whether talk-shows or audio, they ceased us was punished seriously.

From some previously abducted children interviewed's viewpoint, common audio about the FM channels especially Super FM demonstrated to get been in distributing amnesty info efficient. Therefore, some LRA fighters could return home. Boniface Ojok, in his comments corroborates this declaration from the previous LRA solders towards the LRA concerning the effect of radio conversation.

The LRA management frustrated its middle position commanders and foot-soldiers from hearing receivers on recognizing they reduced in figures. Many to stated that once the LRA recognized that receivers became thus efficient in appealing the commanders and foot-soldiers, there was a caution released that receivers ought to be utilized just from the leading management[96]

Common audio consequently has been used-to talk communications that are essential for that LRA. These communications are efficient in training and telling the LRA. With a child soldiers performer had become their role models. Some decided to being convinced by popular artists. Their tunes about attractive to them in the future from the bush and requesting them to reject the revolt was educational as well as as amnesty [97].

Furthermore, common music is assisting in-confidence building one of the LRA.[100]  the LRA management has utilized as propaganda These instances to prevent foot-soldiers from returning but this propaganda has been razed by artists. the artist including creating an individual phone about their security on return towards the LRA management has sung powerful concept for forgiveness, reconciliation, brotherhood and welcome.

Designers like Infant Dalvin, thinks that amnesty in the government without further guarantee from civilian populace wasn't enough for that LRA to return.  The LRA fighters were conscious of the excuse through the amnesty however they didn't understand how the civilian communities within the ideologies could be responding for them. Government guarantee from prosecutions wasn't enough. Designers needed to part of and guarantee the LRA practitioners in the civilian communities about their security. Common audio could load the emptiness quit from the government. Guarantees were delivered by common audio about security which individuals are prepared to reconcile together. These have not been unable to displace some degree of assurance within the LRA. â??Some designers have actually named the LRA fighters as siblings as well as for Acoli individuals when somebody has named you a sibling that's greatest guarantee of approval without vengeance.â??[102]

Likewise, once the commanders of the LRA were indicted by International Criminal Court, its effect was anticipated about the peace process.[105] Such resistance of the exterior causes towards the peace process hasbeen reported to produce assurance about the LRA simply because they have the people and also the government are prepared to conserve them ICC prosecutions. Hence the designers have now been ready to include their speech to currently a â??hostileâ?? Area to ICC developing a sensation of â??safetyâ?? Among individuals in Uganda and some LRA in the government.

Moreover, the part common audio is currently enjoying nowadays is just a reproduction of the part tunes performed in Acoli neighborhood that is conventional. Typically, train and tunes were used-to entertain. Commanders with unruly actions were mocked.[107] This part of music lives on within the music nowadays. Common designers haven't downplayed the atrocities the 2 decades have been dedicated within by the LRA. Words replicate LRA challenge the LRA and atrocities. Common audio attributed the LRA and have uncovered the atrocities. From what they observe as unlike social beliefs designers have responded.

In Uganda, both the LRA and also the government have now been trying to dehumanize each for that atrocities but several popular designers have attributed LRA and requested them to finish atrocities. Towngweno, within their tune, Bedo I camp, strikes the LRA â??everyone is speaking with title, what recognition have you been seeking? Orphans, widows have become several due to you!  Why do you wish to complete Acoli?â?? Such tunes not just reveal but additionally hit shame for atrocities one of the LRA[112] â??I am alone today! So what can I-say? I'm today alone within our house! So what can I-say? I will have no mom, No sibling, No sibling, No dad, No dad, Battle has completed all of the kids and kids of Acoliâ??

Based on another participant, a former rebel, â??popular audio have summed up what's occurred of course if you've transported such atrocities you are feeling forced to put along your weapon and come and have for apologies.â??[114]

Lastly, popular designers purchased their audio to shape the turmoil in ways that influences the LRA absolutely making them to rethink peace.[116] ideas have transformed and created data related and convincing towards the LRA. The framework is dependant on the idea of â??defeatâ?? and â??interestâ?? of the LRA in the war.

To a lot of individuals questioned, the turmoil must have been finished when the government had attacked peaceful means[120] in his tunes, Dok Paco, he performs using the idea of â??defeat.â?? He calls the LRA and the government to discuss. He claims â??negotiating doesn't imply you're defeatedâ?? to eliminate the myth defeat. 

Furthermore, Bosmic Otim frames the issues on â??interestâ?? of the LRA. They're in the same period doing horrible assault about the people as the LRA promises to become battling for marginalization of people in Uganda. Bosmic, in his tune Peace Returns, he claims â??If a government soldier dies tomorrow, you'll discover an Acoli, if your LRA gift diesâ?¦you will discover an Acoli.â?? Their framework supports the watch this 1 group is completing itself indicating there's in continuing the battle no stage.

These framings assist in ideas that are changing. It may be extremely convincing. Based on rebels, two influences were reported by them. First, they've been convinced by this framework which created some rebels â??ready to maneuver to a different existence?â??[121] Subsequently, they've had the opportunity to determine the truth of the turmoil and its own effect. â??We could begin to see the different aspect of the coin.â?? This body has created some large scale improvements in culture.

Concluding Observations

Audio has some issues too. You will find in battles among some artists that are common and their placement has occasionally influenced as peacebuilder in culture. There has been situations of common performer fighting if they're involved with assault and just how may they speak for peace. This really is simply because to the peace tracks individuals give of public score. It has come into making ideologies in battles one of the common artist t.

Extra, industrial attention of recording musicians and some artists has overshadowed peace music. Often they're diverted from actual problems and compelled to perform since their marketers already have cash or exactly what the government wishes. This causes hence and diversion decrease in the peace communications in Uganda

Moreover, some forthcoming performer that was common mentioned that there's a lot of politics of the channels which just perform audio from acknowledged designers languishing using their peace tracks and making them to endure. Some performer recommended that audio supervisors in the FM channels question them lumpsum cash to incorporate their tunes on the playlist. The peace tunes are limited by this to only a common and few performer departing some artists out. This occasionally eliminates youthful artist's potential who might be having in promoting peacebuilding in the area real interest.

Lastly, concern was also indicated by designers in the government. Some performer think they CAn't face the federal government simply because they worry that FM channels won't perform their songs and worry for that lifestyles and they are limited by this from being natural and therefore influencing neutrality and their status within the tunes.

Regardless of these restrictions, a number are also of reasons why common audio is peacebuilding in the event of Uganda and still efficient incompatible change. You have to check out the social framework in given that audio may subscribe to peacebuilding to start with. Since period in funeral Uganda continues to be prosecuted in northern this gives for peacebuilding a greatest chance to utilize audio more.

Subsequently, within audio, you will find significantly more than tunes. There's tempo, conversation and motion which-when mixed becomes an extremely effective motion for peace. In viewing movies and hearing audio, it's possible to observe that these are in strengthening very efficient...

There's excellent knowledge and imagination of the neighborhood framework by artists. One politician whilst the best approach recommended the usage of name-dropping

Lastly, the most popular audio is hardly irrelevant to regional problems in Uganda. Audio and energy electoral democracy

In this essay, merely a restricted quantity of tunes, the majority of that can come in the musical style â??Bongo Flavaâ?? have already been explained. You can find truly tunes about supports including gospel music which may be important, from other forms of audio. Nonetheless, the tunes explained below do offer insight in to the guarantee through the use of artists as common belief leaders and tune as kept

a method not just to share essential health info, but additionally like a system for causing interpersonal and conduct changeâ?¦.SHERI BASTIEN



[(]* Is Just A mother prospect in the College of Notre Dame. He gained a B.A. in Humanities from Makerere University. He retains a Post-graduate Peace Studies and degree in Conflict Management along with a postgraduate degree in Education. He's offered being an Information Specialist to get a health communication team along with a reduction business. Lately, he worked as conversation and Tracking and Analysis Administrator for the Refugee Council. Several studies have been performed by him about the press incompatible change in Uganda's part.

[1] Moses Cyprus Okello and Lucy Hovil, â??Confronting the Truth of Gender-Based Abuse in Northern Uganda,â?? The International Journal of Transitional Justice INCH(3) 2007: 375-390.

[2] View Behrend, Heike, Alice Lakwena and also the Holy Tones: Battle in Northern Uganda, 1985-97 (James Currey, Oxford 1999)

[3] See Allen, Ricky, 1991, Comprehension Alice: Ugandaâ??s Holy Spirit Motion in Framework. Africa, vol. 61, no. 3. 370-399. Department, Adam, â??Neither Peace, or Justice: Political Abuse and also the Peasantry in Upper Ugandaâ?? (2005) 8(2) African Research Q 1,

[4] Lomo, Zachary and Hovil, Lucy, â??Behind the Assault: Causes, Effects and also the look for Methods To the Battle in Northern Uganda,â?? Refugee Law Project Working Paper No. 11 (January 2004), p43

http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4a3f8d3c1e.html [accessed 21 January 2010]

[6] Moses Cyprus Okello and Lucy Hovil, â??Confronting the Truth of Gender-Based Abuse in Northern Uganda,â?? The International Journal of Transitional Justice INCH(3) 2007: 375-390.

[7] See Justice and Reconciliation Task, Cooling of the Minds: Neighborhood Truth-Telling in Acholi-property,  2007, 6

http://www.csopnu.net/?jc=juba [accessed 21 January 2010]

[9] Moses Cyprus Okello and Lucy Hovil, â??Confronting the Truth of Gender-Based Abuse in Northern Uganda,â?? The International Journal of Transitional Justice INCH(3) 2007: 375-390.

[10] Interviews Odek, having a chief, 27 December 2009

[ 11 ] Interviews having a 67-year old in Odek

[12] Interviews Odek, having a chief, 27 December 2009

[13] Interviews Odek, having a chief, 27 December 2009

[14] Schumann, Anne â??The Beat that Defeat Apartheid: The Part of Audio within the Opposition against Apartheid in South Africa,â?? Stichproben. Wiener Zeitschrift für kritische Afrikastudien Nr. 14/2008. Jg., 17â??39 g:2

[15] Kaiser. â??Songs, Discos and Dance in Kiryandongo, Ugandaâ??, Diary of Cultural and Migration Reports, Vol. 32, no. 2, March 2006, pp. 183â??202, pp184

[ 16 ] Ibid 188

[17] Interviews having a chief, Odek, 27 December 2009

[18] Interviews Odek, having a chief, 27 December 2009

[19] Interviews Odek, having a chief, 27 December 2009

[20] Interviews Odek, having a chief, 27 December 2009

[21] pp 7, Kaiser, Tania

[22] pp 7, Kaiser, Tania

[23] Interviews Odek, having a chief, 27 December 2009

[ 24 ] Interviews Gulu City, having an artist January 2010

[25] Interviews having a business operator 23rd, in Gulu City December 2009

[26] you will find 5 stereo in Gulu

[27] you will find 10 studio in Gulu

[28] Interviews having a business operator 23rd, in Gulu City December 2009

[29] Interviews having a business operator 23rd, in Gulu City December 2009

[30] Olivier Urbain, ed., Audio and Conflict Transformation: Harmonies and Dissonances in Geopolitics. London: I. W. Tauris

[31] Lisa Schirch 217 and Michael Shrank

[32] Playing for that group 274

[33] Oliver Audio and Conflict Transformation: Harmonies and Dissonances in Geopolitics

[34] Olivier Urbain 7

[35] Olivier Urbain 32

[36] John Paul Ledarach. The Moral Imagination: The-Art and Spirit of Creating Peace (Ny: Oxford Press, 2005).

[37] Lisa Schirch. Routine and Image in Peacebuilding (Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, 2004).

[38] Lisa Schirch

[39] Lisa Schirch

[40] Lisa Schirch and Michael Shrank

[41] Lisa Schirch and Michael Shanks, pp219

[42] Lisa Schirch and Michael Shanks, pp223

[43] Lesley Pruitt, â??They Fall Beats, Not Bombs: Audio and Party in Childhood Peace-Buildingâ?? Australian Journal of Peace Research, vol 3 2008: 14-32,pp 3

[44] Lesley Pruitt

[45] Alba Sanfeliu, A document offered towards the first assembly of the ICTM research team Utilized Ethnomusicology, meeting Historic and Rising Methods To Used Ethnomusicology (Ljubljana, Slovenia 9 â?? 13 July 2008) 

[46] The investigator worked and existed in Gulu. He talks the respondents' language

[47] The galleries include:

[48] radio channels are:

[49] Odek is Koch Goma and 47 Km is 17 Km

[50] Koch Goma, Odek and Gulu Town

[51] there have been 8 employees for NGOS and 15 government leaders

[52] there have been 12 woman for that FGDs and 18 guys along with a whole of 4 women were LRA troops

[53] View Lederach, J.P. (2005) The Moral Imagination: The-Art and Spirit of Creating Peace. Taylor, Oxford University Press., G. (2003). Applied Theatre: Creating Transformative Activities Locally. Heinemann Drama.

/ wiki/name dropping

[ 55 ] Interviews Representative Infant, with Infant Dalvin - Uganda, Dalvin Studios Gulu Area.

[56] Ibid

[ 57 ] Interviews Representative Infant, with Infant Dalvin - Uganda, Dalvin Studios Gulu Area

[58] there are lots of stop in radio station in Uganda and different data set one stereo although the amount between channels is 102 Super DFID FM that was established by for conflict resolution by DFID

[ 59 ] Interviews with government official active in the peace discussions 23 Dec, using the LRA, 2009, Uganda, Gulu Area

[60] Ibid

Http://www.ifra - 4Bwana.pdf that is nairobi.net/assets/cahiers/Cahier_41/

[62]Artists within the peace process, have created recognized tunes for government participation like Loketo Lee. In his tune, he requires individuals to help their initiatives in getting peace and movements the federal government delegation.

[63] Ibid

[ 64 ] Interviews Uganda, with Acan Dorothy Gulu Area.

[ 65 ] Interviews with government official active in the peace discussions 23 Dec, using the LRA, 2009, Uganda, Gulu Area

[ 66 ] Interviews that are

[ 67 ] Interviews Uganda, with Otto Mathew Gulu Area.

[68] Ibid

[69] Ibid

[70] Ibid

[71] Bosmic Otim tunes for Museveni

[ 72 ] Interviews with Oloya Paul camp, Uganda, Gulu Area

[73] Interviews with Okello Mark, Cwero IDP camp, Gulu Area, Uganda.

[74] Interviews

[75] Interviews

[76] Interviews with a government standard, 27 Dec, 2009, Gulu Area, Uganda

[77] Interviews with Otto Mathew, Cwero IDP camp, Gulu Area, Uganda.

[78] Interviews having a government standard, 27 Dec, 2009, Gulu Area, Uganda

[79] Interviews having a government standard, 27 Dec, 2009, Gulu Area, Uganda

[80] Interviews having a government standard, 27 Dec, 2009, Gulu Area, Uganda

[81] Interviews having a government standard, 27 Dec, 2009, Gulu Area, Uganda

[82] Interviews having a government standard, 27 Dec, 2009, Gulu Area, Uganda

[83] Oboteâ??s Government were reported to become great

[84] Interviews having a government standard, 27 Dec, 2009, Gulu Area, Uganda

[ 85 ] Interviews 27 Dec, having a government standard, 2009, Uganda, Gulu Area

[86] when individuals are uncertain of government capability to offer peace This intended more straightforward to have Holiday early in July if you find comparable peace than wait till Dec

/ content/everyday/Arts.asp?ID=395>

[ 88 ] Interviews 27 Dec, having a government standard, 2009, Uganda, Gulu Area

/ problems/2004-4/thismonth/feature.php

[ 90 ] Interviews with Okodi Emma, Gulu City, Stereo Producer 28 June 2009, Uganda Interviews

[91] Seethe New Perspective, Ugandaâ??s Leading Daily, April 4th,2008 utilized online 17th.December, 2009

[92]Seethe New Perspective, Ugandaâ??s Leading Daily, April 4th,2008 utilized online 17th.December, 2009

/ Report.aspx?ReportId=77168>

[94] Amnesty in Uganda was

[95] Audio and Disciplines for Action/Ugo Corte & Bob Edwards 2008 | ISSN: 1754-7105 | Page 8

[96] Ojok Boniface

[97] Focus Uganda, Group Conversations, 27 December Gulu Area.

[98] Confidence building is��

[99] Focus Uganda, Group Conversations, 27 December Gulu Area.

[100] Focus Uganda, Group Conversations, 27 December Gulu Area.

[101] Uganda, Focus Group Conversations, 27 December Gulu Area.

[102] Focus Uganda, Group Conversations, 27 December Gulu Area.

[103] ICC issueâ?¦.The LRA have now been indicted from the ICC which hasbeen recommended like a main obstacle for that peace discussions at Juba in South Sudan

[104] This Is Actually The PAM awards whichâ?¦.

[105]Focus Uganda, Group Conversations, 27 December Gulu Area.

[106]Focus Uganda, Group Conversations, 27 December Gulu Area.

[107] Uganda, Focus Group Conversations, 27 December Gulu Area.

[108] Focus Uganda, Group Conversations, 27 December Gulu Area.

[109] Focus Uganda, Group Conversations, 27 December Gulu Area.

[110] Focus Uganda, Group Conversations, 27 December Gulu Area.

[111] Focus Uganda, Group Conversations, 27 December Gulu Area.

[ 112 ] Interviews, 27 December Gulu District.

[113] Focus Uganda, Group Conversations, 27 December Gulu Area.

[114] beats fall 4

[115] Audio and Disciplines for Action/Ugo Corte & Bob Edwards 2008 | ISSN: 1754-7105 | Page 9


http://www.istr.org/conferences/bangkok/WPVolume/Kasaija.ApuuliPhillip.pdf >p5

[118] Uganda, Focus Group Conversations, 27 December Gulu Area.

[119] Interviews

[120] Their tale of how he dropped his fatherâ?¦see the brand new Perspective

[121] Kathy Bon Henry Griggs Proper Communications for Charitable, step-by-step to dealing with Press, Jossey-Bass Manual Publishers, r 44.

[122] â??Pride seems to have inspired people to apply better work on the challenging job because of their getting interpersonal acclaim.â?? P-4 Williams, M. A. ,. (2008). Satisfaction and determination: pride's inspirational part. Log of Character and Cultural Psychology, 94(6), 1007-1017.