Upgrade the existing land rover defenders powertrain

Update the present Land Rover Defenders powertrain

Release

The look groups task goal:

To suggest a course and fresh motor style to update the present Land Rover Defenders powertrain

The next statement covers flaws of the LR Opponent that is present plus a following overview of sophisticated motor systems. Lastly the look goals for that new motor that was recommended are described with all required guidelines warranted and determined. The look group also have regarded the efficiency needs in addition to the price, manufacturability influences of the brand new motor.

Benchmarking

The LR Opponent motor that is present is likely to be significantly analysed in-regards to the automobiles primary rivals on the market position. This can permit the flaws of the engine design that is present therefore fixed for that new specification motor and to become decided.

The motor through the subsequent area is likely to be significantly analysed within the following primary places;

Speed & rate efficiency

Motor energy & usefulness (MEP and energy thickness)

Pollutants of dangerous fumes and particles

Gas economy

The possible client notion of automobiles motor along with other efficiency criterion (including affordability).

The next rival automobiles were investigated and set alongside the present LR Opponent to determine standard needs for that new specification motor;

Jeep Wrangler Unlimited (seen as the primary rival)

Mercedes benz Gclass G550

Nissan Patrol GR

Toyota Land Cruiser 3.0 N

To Fig.4.7 in Appendix.1 complete requirements, benchmarked using the current LR Opponent, refer to get a desk of the automobiles.

Research & Discussion

It becomes obvious the present LR Opponent is by taking seconds to achieve 0 62 mph in contrast to 11.7 seconds' Jeep Wranglers period not quicker than its rivals, by researching Fig.4.7 in Appendix.1, the benchmarking desk. Even though LR Opponent isn't likely to possess a quick speed period, because it is definitely an off-power car, the Defenders sluggish speed features may discourage potential prospects set alongside its own different rivals and the Truck.

The speed period is attained by the Mercedes Benz G550 which could proceed 0 62 mph using its 5L V8 gasoline engine within an amazing 6.1 moments. The price of the Mercedes Benz G550 nevertheless is 50,250 (when compared with 27,610 for that Opponent) and it has twice the engine capability of the Opponent, therefore is likely to be much more effective using its gas engine set alongside the 2.4L turbocharged diesel Opponent motor.

The look groups suggestion is whilst the Opponent is roughly 230kg light and more costly compared to Truck the fact that the present LR Opponent motor must atleast complement or beat its competitor the Jeep Wrangler in places for example speed period from 0-62 mph.

Another problem is the fact that the speed that is Defenders may be the cheapest out-of all its rivals. This low-top speed has additionally drawn criticism from car correspondent Jeremy Clarkson (2006) who mentioned the greatest disadvantage of the LR Opponent is its fragile motor and therefore related sluggish velocity and top rate. The LR Opponent motor that is brand new should remove these criticisms to become therefore and more aggressive on the market location more desirable to potential prospects.

Car

Energy per cylinder (kilowatt/tube)

Power Density Rate (kilowatt/D)

LR Defense 2.4L N 4inl

22.50

37.48

Jeep Wrangler 2.8L N 4inl

32.50

46.81

Mercedesbenz G550 5.5L V8 gas

47.75

70.23

Nissan Patrol GR 3.0 N 4inl

29.50

39.96

Toyota Land Cruiser 3.0D 4inl

30.75

41.25

Fig.1.0 analyzes the potency of the motors which were benchmarked at length. It suggests that the present motor that is Defenders has got the cheapest energy density when it comes to motor capability. Because it suggests that the when not considering the Defenders fairly small-engine capability this can be a large weakness, its motor is greatly underpowered. The Mercedesbenz G550 not surprisingly shows the very best energy density because it is just a fuel engine. The considered nearest competitor when it comes to picture and target audience, the Jeep Wrangler shows an energy density rate that is significantly higher.

Or team suggest to improve the ability thickness to become equivalent using the Jeep Wrangler with atleast a percentage of above M to the motors.

Automobile

Torque (Nm)

MEP (Mpa)

LR Defense 2.4L N 4inl

360

1.885

Jeep Wrangler 2.8L N 4inl

400

1.815

Mercedesbenz Gclass G550 5.5L V8 gas

391

0.903

Nissan Patrol GR 3.0 N 4inl

380

1.619

Toyota Land Cruiser 3.0D 4inl

410

1.729

A weakness of the present Opponent nevertheless is outlined try of the automobile by engine correspondent Jeremy Clarkson (2006) for that Times Magazine. He mentioned the automobile merely didn't have sufficient torque to draw a horse truck behind it in a fair pace. This is often supported from the information observed above which suggests that the present Opponent motor creates minimal quantity of torque out-of all its rivals in Fig.1.1. This weakness is seriously formulated from the proven fact that the automobile is promoted being an off road car and therefore wants high-torque needs to become-in a position to understand through free and high ground efficiently. As a result the proven fact may off puts clients that the present Opponent has torque therefore and than its rivals this problem will have when improving the present motor to be resolved.

The brand new motor should be created less environmentally hostile compared to present motor as January 2013 might find therefore and the present Pound 5 emissions targets changed from the European 6 regulation tighter emissions goals. The Opponent is third-best out the five rivals the automobile was benchmarked against when it comes to CO2 emissions, that will be an indication for general total exhaust efficiency.

By reaching a mixed energy economy of mpg the present Opponent comes second-best towards the Jeep Wrangler when it comes to energy economy. Nevertheless Toyota Land Cruiser and the additional diesel motor rivals are fuel-efficient compared to Opponent.

While buying an off road car like the Opponent, gas economy may possibly not be the element however it is becoming more very important to potential prospects during the decade. Exactly the same might be stated for the higher significance of pollutants efficiency that potential prospects might search for. The brand new Opponent motor will probably be much more effective and therefore a much better energy economy goal (similar to 32.8mpg of the Jeep Wrangler) might be from reach. Nevertheless through choosing and researching systems, the energy economy efficiency atleast held the exact same or might be enhanced somewhat.

From examining the Opponent, using the information shown in Fig.4.7 (Appendix.1), it may be observed the automobile is neither the very best or worst performing automobile when it comes to energy economy, but moderately in connection to rivals.

The total amount of the present Defenders inline-four motor setup, based on Nunney (2006), has ideal main stability since when one set of pistons are shifting up, another set are shifting along in the same period. Inline-four motors nevertheless don't have extra dynamic-balance that is ideal. The reason being piston speed differs based on its straight placement inside the cylinder-head with regards to the crankshaft that it's attached to. This results in one set of pistons going quicker compared to additional, which produces results and another discrepancy in the motor moving vertically. Nunney (2006) also describes that at low-power designs the extra discrepancy (shake) isn't too serious but could possibly get significantly worse with growing dimension and effective motors. This might reveal why the present inline-4 Opponent motor includes a displacement than its rivals, to lessen discrepancy vibration that is extra to be able to attract potential prospects on creating a crankshaft to moist large motor shake and conserve expenses.

The next talents will also be displayed from the present motor;

Greatest MEP worth from the rivals benchmarked against

Greatest power to fat percentage (might be because of fundamental inside producing automobile light)

Whilst the respected Landrover manufacturer might convince individuals to purchase the automobile anyway potential prospects might disregard the obvious energy and torque deficits.

Overview of current Opponent motor (when compared with rivals);

Flaws

Talents

- Slowest speed from 0 62 Mph

- Best Mean Effective Stress of 1.885Mpa, much better than rival automobiles

- Cheapest top rate of only 82 mph

- Best Capacity To fat percentage (kilowatt/kg)

- more costly with worse rate performance than Jeep Wrangler by >4000 even.

- Energy economy isn't the toughest

- Lowest Energy per tube created (kilowatt/cyl)

- Exhaust of CO2 isn't the toughest

- Extra discrepancy of right inline-four motor setup (opponents also provide this weakness)

- Lengthy record of Opponent might attract potential prospects, hence motor disadvantages might be ignored

- Cheapest torque created out-of rivals

- Not the very best in either gas usage or pollutants, despite smallest ability motor

- Lowest Power Density Rate (kilowatt/D)

Current Vehicle Performance Trends

Fig 1.3 displays the efficiency developments for Jaguar motors as much as 2010. The look team can easily see the fresh Opponent motor will need a rise in particular motor power although precise efficiency goals CAn't be extrapolated in the chart. Nevertheless using the escalation in energy, gas usage and elevated pollutants may happen. This along with Fig 1.4 below from Richardson (2010) demonstrates how CO2 emissions have reduced regardless of the pattern of motor power also growing.

As the developments from Figs display that pollutants developments and efficiency developments boost decrease, the team is finishing that customers to get a LR Opponent is likely to be not as likely worried about the cars pollutants or gas economy when compared with low-vehicle cars clients. Hence raising the torque (and energy) of the present motor to complement its rivals is prioritised. It's admitted that any enhancement in pollutants divisions and energy economy is likely to be restricted, however in the passions of Land Rovers picture, any enhancement on these faculties is going to be helpful.

Advanced Engine Technology

Supercharging & turbo charging Engineering

Superchargers (physical push pushed)

This can be a system comprising to drive more atmosphere in to the motor. Making a larger quantity of atmosphere (under positive-pressure) in to the motor offers more air for that combustion procedure than with no supercharger. Consequently more gas permitting more function per a period to be achieved and could be therefore supplied for combustion response to happen. the energy result of the motor hence escalates.

The benefit of supercharging based on Daniels (2001) is the fact that it increases the motors torque and BMEP from the quantity the atmospheric strain escalates in to the motor. Supercharged engines encounter throttle response that is greater than normally aspirated motors.

The downside of utilizing a supercharger is the fact that it's usually less thermally effective compared to more prevalent applied turbocharger (which employs power from normally lost exhaust gas). Another disadvantage outlined by Harris (2002) is the fact that supercharging (especially physical-supercharging methods) places additional pressure on the motor and its own elements because they are necessary to endure additional traces supplied by the supercharging increase. This involves the motor to become created heavier, hence heavier, tougher and much more costly. Daniels (2001) also describes the way the sound produced with a superchargers physical push elements may subscribe to additional passenger distress.

Turbochargers

The unit contain a compressor along with a generator and therefore are a kind of supercharger. The distinction is the fact that in the place of routinely operating a compressor to drive more atmosphere in to the motor, turbochargers employs the motors own exhaust fumes (which may have now been otherwise lost). It will this by transforming the energy into spinning power from fumes to show a generator. Push it pressurised to the motor and the generator is attached to the compressor on a single base, hence this forces the compressor to attract atmospheric atmosphere.

A turbocharger's benefits are just like to get a supercharger as explained of motor BMEP that is improving. This really is right for the LR Opponent that'll require the energy that is additional if getting used off road or in high streets, that will be the marketplace the automobile is focused to. Turbochargers will also be more thermally effective than superchargers because of utilization of the gas that is normally lost. This hence reduces exhaust gases and pollutants removed in to the environment. Daniels (2001) explains once the motor reaches low-load that for primarily diesel motors variable-geometry turbochargers may preserve a suitable exhaust gas pace although the turbo generator.

Drawbacks range from the requirement for a cooler before it enters the generator consequently incorporating mass and fat towards the motor to cool gas. During procedure turbochargers also encounter once the throttle is utilized a turbo-lag.

As previously described the LR Defenders rivals (especially its primary competitor the Jeep Wrangler) have significantly more effective motors compared to present Opponent 2.4litre 4 cylinder engine. If improving the motor by growing its tube capability, more atmosphere (especially air) will have to be provided towards the cylinders for combustion. Hence double- turbochargers' use might be necessary to drive more atmosphere in to the cylinders to help make the combustion method stoichiometric. Additionally the benefit of utilizing two smaller turbochargers (twinturbo), in the place of a bigger individual turbocharger, is the fact that turbo-lag is decreased. Often a little turbocharger materials increase at greater motor speeds and offers increase at reduced motor speeds and also the minute kicks in. You will find two well known types of double- turbochargers named Consecutive and Similar kinds.

When you compare disadvantages and the advantages of routinely-powered superchargers and turbochargers fuel-efficient to operate and it had been chose to use turbochargers because they are eco-friendly. A variable-geometry turbocharger is used by the present motor for that LR Opponent which is probably the same kind of device will also turbocharges the brand new specification motor.

Variable Valve Timing Devices

Camless Valve Systems

Autoweek Magazine (2005) states that Valeo on two Peugeot 407s tested valve methods effectively under severe climate conditions and intense screening. The valves powered to available and shut valves and were managed by personal actuators.

The benefits of camless methods, described by Daniels (2001), range from the following;

Device timing could be changed to as preferred

Theoretically some cylinders might be turn off (at low-load) to permit others to operate more proficiently

Raise and device timing could be coordinated by having an estimated saving as high as 20% on fuel-saving towards the requirements of the motor.

The engine's physical style could be refined whilst other connected device equipment become repetitive along with the using a camshaft.

When the automobile has electric issues the benefits nevertheless are overshadowed from the energy requirements of the program and also the connected difficulty and stability concerns. Chris Brown who's vicepresident of powertrain design and style for Ricardo mentioned in Autoweek Magazine (2005) It boils down to difficulty and price which amounts up why camless methods continue to be not (although a lot of feel they ultimately will soon be) utilized in individual automobile applications. For That LR Opponent motor camless that is fresh methods won't be properly used for that drawbacks identified above.

Variable Valve Timing Technology

Mechadyne International (2006) claims that the utilization of variable-valve train methods may considerably decrease both gas usage and exhaust emissions. The total amount through which the variable-valve train methods decrease pollutants and gas usage will be estimated to 10%. The reason being, whilst the Bosch Automotive Guide (2007) states, BMWs VALVETRONIC program decreases gas usage and exhaust pollutants by more than 12%.

Based on the Bosch Automotive Guide (2007) the next kinds of variable-valve timing engineering can be found;

Camshaft stage modification

Camshaft-lobe handle

Completely variable-valve time with camshaft

Completely variable-valve time without camshaft

Camshaft Stage Modification

This kind of valve time that is variable changes the stage the cameras have been in connection with the levers that close and available the valves. To alter the stage of the changes that were little are created, by controlled actuators, towards the camshaft like a purpose of engine-speed. Often the camshaft can be managed to maneuver to 2 pre- positions that were determined.

Benefits include higher energy, effectiveness and torque being experienced to get a broader selection of motor speeds. Drawbacks to additional device timing techniques range from the restricted variety where the valves timings can in fact be changed.

Fully Variable Valve Timing with Camshaft

Equally valve lift cans vary. The lobes about the camshaft possess a bent account which along with the camshaft having the ability to proceed readily laterally, this permits the device lift and time to even be varied impartial to one another, that will be a clear benefit towards the formerly restricted device control-systems mentioned previously.

Fully Variable Valve Time without Camshaft

These kinds of methods are extremely diverse, towards the earlier mentioned, because it changes the usage of a camshaft with possibly the next kinds of control techniques solenoid (electromagnetic) or electro-hydraulic actuators.

The largest benefit of these methods are that run therefore and individually in the crankshaft this enables the valves to become exposed anytime amount of the motors period. This, as previously mentioned from the Bosch Automotive Guide (2007), provides the best level of independence for device time and therefore the best possibility of lowering gas usage. Additionally deactivation of particular cylinders is possible thus permitting the cylinders that were energetic to function more proficiently at lower motor speeds. Drawbacks are nevertheless that superchargers CAn't be mounted (without very costly and complex style), even though room is preserved from not utilizing a camshaft, electric elements could be cumbersome and dangerous. Additionally completely variable-valve timing systems' price means it's improbable they'll be integrated In To The new motor style.

Camshaft-Lobe Control

In these kinds of methods it becomes feasible for a valves time to become managed by three independent camshaft lobes with respect to the engine-speed. Based on the Bosch Automotive Guide (2007) the main one lobes account is designed to ensure that device time and raise is optimised for that lower to mid-engine speed selection. Another lobes account is optimised for greater motor rates by increasing starting moments and device lift. Methods for example Toyotas WTI and Hondas VTEC use camshaft- control technique that is lobe. Camshaft- shifting kinds of variable-valve time also reveal disadvantages and comparable advantages towards the phase change technique.

This kind of variable time (camshaft-lobe handle) is likely to be employed for the brand new motor style. The reason being it doesnt price as much (or consider just as much) whilst the additional variable-valve timing methods while still being vastly beneficial when it comes to efficiency, gas economy and emissions control gain.

Fuel Injection Systems

Common Rail Fuel Injection

These gas programs contain a typical rail tubing program preserved at continuous ruthless using a push. Injectors for every tube within the motor have been in switch attached to the rail tubing that is most popular. The injectors have solenoid valves that are electronically-controlled via an engine ECU (Electric Control Device) to available and near in the preferred timings as described at length by DENSO (2005).

An edge of common-rail fuel treatment is the fact that handle of gas treatment (based on Daniels, 2001) reaches the injector itself and never in the push that will be the situation with additional gas injection methods. Greater demands may also be accomplished hence more gas could be shot in to the tube in a smaller period of time with greater gas atomisation, as explained by DENSO (2005), resulting in large combustion performance along with a decrease in pollutants. This really is essential once the automobile is likely to be available on the market as fresh emissions goals will need to be fulfilled using the European 6 regulation in 2014.

This kind of shot technology's primary downside based on Daniels (2001) is the fact that the injectors are naturally complex indesign and costly to produce.

Piezoelectric Injectors (For Common Rail Systems)

In the place of applying solenoid valves that are more often utilized in common-rail fuel treatment system injectors may be used in higher-performance motors. These injectors function by utilizing crystals that increase therefore starting and final and when provided with an electric cost gas injection valves. The next characteristics of piezoelectric type injectors are typical;

Higher small proportions than valve injectors.

More correct gas quantity and control over shot time.

Piezoelectric injectors may be used with Accelerometer Pilot Handle (APC) to reduce diesel motor shake at reduced motor speeds. by treating a little quantity of gas prior to the primary treatment amount this really is attained.

Piezoelectric injectors may also run faster with increased consistency than solenoid valves (roughly five times quicker), that allows higher control over gas usage and pollutants.

The Automotive Guide (2007) claims the utilization of piezo-injectors for common-rail gas programs may decrease pollutants by as much as 20%.

Emissions Reduction Technologies

Stanton (2009) from roadtransport.com describes the way the European Parliament (EP) and European Commission (EC) have decided fresh goals for adhere to Pound-6 exhaust regulation. The brand new Pound-6 goals will need to be therefore and fulfilled by automobile producers the brand new specification LR Opponent by 1st January 2013. This really is prior to the fresh LR Opponent design may achieve Work 1 (middle to late 2013). It's thus essential that current and fresh systems are examined in emissions-control to meet up these goals. Recently potential prospects are influenced by environmentally friendly efficiency of automobiles as part of your within their purchasing decision. It's thus essential we preserve Jaguars respected model image and contend with rivals by achieving the present (Pound-5) and potential Pound-6 emissions goals.

Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF)

This can be a system that will be accountable for eliminating smoke and little particulate contaminants from the diesel engine's exhaust fuel. There is a DPF not 100% but is generally identified to become more than 50% effective all of the period. There is of the DPF a great function the fact that its purpose based on torquecars.com (2008) is impartial to some catalytic converter hence ensuring total emissions won't influence significantly.

Including eliminating harmful little contaminants from a motors pollutants the benefits of filters are much-publicised. DPF's two kinds, passive and energetic, have disadvantages and their very own advantages.

The primary drawbacks of DPF, described by torquecars.com (2008), are outlined below;

The filters could possibly get hot creating a fire safety risk that is feasible.

To get rid of a DPF really specialized modifications need to be designed to the ECUs that are damaged fatigue and to alter the awareness of devices within the automobiles motor.

A DPF may reduce motor efficiency by for the most part 10% Bhp.

Additional Systems

Accelerometer Pilot Control (APC)

Diesel motors are recognized to show severe chugging and shake at reduced engine-speed, which could currently be reduced through technology named Accelerometer Pilot Handle (APC). An APC program, explained by Delphi (2008) includes an accelerometer (microphone) mounted on the motor block which listens towards the combustion which might have induced vibrations happen through the engine block's character. An engine management system reduces sound and the undesirable vibrations by optimising the quantity of gas pilot till appropriate noise are attained shot in a closed-loop program, for combustion.

ECU Remapping

Based on mobilechiptune.com (2007), whenever we remap an engine ECU we're fine-tuning this program that handles motor efficiency. Torque and the accessible motor power might thus possibly boost. Mobilechiptune.com (2007) additionally says that remapping a diesel turbo-engine ECU may create 30 - 50% BHP on precise the specification, where diesel motors provide the many remarkable energy and torque increases available. A remap of the ECU will certainly be needed be considered a twin turbo (or additional systems) are put into the brand new motor, nevertheless the ECU itself is just prone to accomplish little increases in-efficiency, gas economy and pollutants.

Overview of Selected Systems

Fig1.5 below shows the chosen systems the team is suggesting in to the Defenders motor for introduction. Shows rates of the anticipated development over pollutants, engine efficiency and energy economy. Also notice Section.3 for validation to quotes below.

Function

Selected Engineering

Twin turbo (recycled exhaust gas

Variable-Valve train

Diesel Particulate Filter

Piezo Injectors*

Enhanced ECU Mapping

APC

Efficiency, BHP

+ 20%

+ 10%

- 10%

+ 5%

+ 2.5%

+ 2.5%

Pollutants, CO2 g/km

+ 5%

- 10%

~ 0%

- 10%

- 2.5%

- 2.5%

Fuel Economy, mpg

- 10%

+ 10%

~ 0%

+10%

+ 2.5%

+ 2.5%

*Piezo injectors in the place of solenoid controlled injectors in a typical rail fuel injection method.

3. Choice of Motor Preparations

Altered motor guidelines:

Complete motor capacity 3000 cc.

Volume per each tube 500 cc.

Quantity of cylinders 6

Kind of engine Diesel engine

The goal would be to enhance motor efficiency (primarily torque) by growing the amount of cylinders from four to six. A escalation in complete motor capability of 600 cc won't just pay it, but additionally raises overall power created though there's a reduced amount of capability per tube. Kayne (2009) states that 6 cylinder motors are far more suitable for towing, off-road hilly, and mountainous places while experiencing throttle response that is higher. While keeping the exact same stroke size bore dimension is hence reduced. Bore/swing rate is 1.15, that will be inside 1-1.3 for engine's selection. The fat of the present motor is believed to be 180kg obtained from a BMW 2.5L inline 4 diesel motor (plus fat included for turbo) from information published by Williams (2006), which is really a similar-spec to the present Defenders 2.4L turbo inline-4. The brand new motor is believed to be 25% bigger hence more heavy from the same border, and one more 50kg for that systems that were extra included. The brand new motor fat is hence obtained as around 300kg.

4. Dedication of Style Goals

This portion of the statement offers quotes for gas economy, torque, that new motors energy and emissions characteristics. Below Fig1.7 Exhibits the brand new motors energy efficiency wills influence.

Performance Evaluation

Function

Projected impact on motors Efficiency

BHP (%) influence from present Defenders 121 BHP engine

Growing motor capability by 600cc

+ 25%

+ 30 BHP

Improving present Turbocharger to some twin turbo charger

+ 20%

+ 24 BHP

Adding a variable-valve train program Camshaft Lobe Handle

+ 10%

+ 12 BHP

Lowering the bore from 89.9mm to 82mm

- 10 PERCENT

- 12 BHP

Incorporating a Diesel Particulate Filter

- 10 PERCENT

- 12 BHP

Piezoelectric injectors (in the place of solenoid valves) in keeping-train program

+ 5%

+ 6 BHP

Various;

-Accelerometer Pilot Control (APC)

-Enhanced ECU Mapping

-Enhanced intake ventilation

+ 5%

+ 6 BHP

Complete impact in BHP =

+ 50%

60 BHP Boost

Provided the most energy for prior motor is 121 bhp. Consequently, the brand new motors optimum energy is:

Energy = (121 + 30 + 24 + 12 - 12 - 12 + 6 + 6)bhp

= 181 bhp

= 135kW

Torque and Energy at 3 running problems:

T = 368.5 Nm @ max energy (3500rpm)

T = 400.0 Nm @ max torque (2000rpm)

T = 120.0 Nm @ lazy (1000rpm)

The Torque at numerous motor rates were determined via utilizing the following formula:

Motor energy: Pe=2*? *N* T

Figure 1.8 displays torque curves and the projected energy for that automobile.

Validation of Quotes & Goals

As the choice continues to be taken up to boost the motors capability, growing the motors energy to boost torque features and the automobiles speed, the energy economy and pollutants of the motor also offers to enhance. This really is because of goals and more strict regulation, in addition to the objectives from potential prospects who anticipate the motor to enhance in most office.

It might be stated that that growing the motors capacity implies that the goals of lowering pollutants and the gas usage is going to not be easy. The team might claim nevertheless the present Defenders motor is underpowered when compared with its rivals and was therefore the receiver of poor evaluations from engine correspondents (for example Jeremy Clarkson, 2006).

The possible client marketplace that is Defenders also might not need large changes in pollutants and gas usage. The reason being the Opponent will be utilized for and promoted with expert programs for example towing and tough ground activities being an -area automobile. Clients expect these kinds of automobiles to possess pollutants and worse fuel economy than types that were smaller car. These client objectives may consequently be helpful as while pollutants and gas economy is focused to atleast remain exactly the same, the problem of growing the torque could be prioritised when creating the motor.

The increase in motor capability normally indicates gas usage and the pollutants increases. To conquer this sophisticated motor engineering is likely to be utilized in order gas usage and to reduce the pollutants. Quotes is likely to be made regarding just how much saving (when it comes to proportion) the inclusion of fresh motor engineering may have on pollutants and gas usage. These savings from chosen systems are warranted below.

Impact of engine capacity that is improving

Aged Opponent motor = 2.4L, fresh recommended motor = 3L

Consequently by evaluating the substance (gas) power available these days;

Escalation in efficiency, gas usage and emissions = (3L-2.4L)/2.4L x 100=25%

It is therefore thought that growing the capability by 600cc includes a 25 impact on pollutants and gas economy. It had been additionally thought the motor efficiency increases by 25%.

Update to twinturbo from turbo

Pollutants and the gas usage increases when upgrading to some double-turbocharger. Nevertheless the Bosch Automotive Guide(2007) claims that exhaust gas' recycling to function the twin turbo may reduce pollutants experienced's quantity. Consequently as more exhaust gas is likely to be re used from the twin-turbo (in the place of just one turbocharger) it's thought that merely a 5% escalation in wastes may happen. It's also thought that the twin turbo may have a-10% unfavorable impact on gas economy whilst the higher gas quantity is likely to be used-to correct the atmosphere/gas blend rate.

Adding variable-valve practice (camshaft lobe handle technique)

Based on the Bosch Automotive Guide (2007), the BMW VALVETRONIC defines over 12% keeping in energy economy and pollutants. Consequently we've chose to calculate pollutants preserving and The energy economy as 10%. This really is because of the BMWs program being less inflexible compared to camshaft lobe program the team are suggesting to utilize. There is for example BMWs a completely variable-valve program not utilized due to price and its high-complexity, which are unsuitable for the vehicle's purchase price selection.

Piezo injectors that are electric

Based on the Bosch Automotive Guide (2007) as much as 20% savings (probable in severe instances) is possible with piezo-injectors in the place of solenoid valve injectors in a typical rail fuel injection method. The team has therefore cautiously projected exhaust and gas savings .

Various facets (e.g enhanced ECU mapping and APC) are also considered although these systems subscribe to hardly any efficiency gain, at roughly 5% as a whole.

Fuel Consumption Estimation

The Defenders mixed gas usage that is present is 28.3mpg. This number is likely to be utilized for almost any modifications that'll be used for that new Defenders motor as standard. Using the estimations Fig 1.9 under quotes the change in gas usage. 1.5 (Section. 2).

Function

Projected impact on Fuel-Economy

mpg (%) influence from present Defenders 28.3mpg economy

Growing motor capability by 600cc

- 25 PERCENT

- 7.075 mpg

Improving present Turbocharger to some twin turbo charger

- 10 PERCENT

- 2.83 mpg

Adding a variable-valve train program

+ 10%

+ 2.83 mpg

Lowering the bore from 89.9mm to 82mm

+ 10%

+ 2.83 mpg

Incorporating a Diesel Particulate Filter

~ 0%

~ 0 mpg

Piezoelectric injectors (in the place of solenoid valves) in keeping-train program

+10%

+ 2.83 mpg

Various;

- Accelerometer Pilot Control (APC)

- Enhanced ECU Mapping

+ 5%

+ 1.415 mpg

Complete impact on mpg =

per cent change

0 mpg change

The Defenders mixed energy economy that is present is 28.3mpg. And so the new motors mixed energy economy is;

Gas economy = 28.3 mpg

The table below analyzes the brand new motors fuel economy to rivals;

Automobile

Combined Fuel Economy (mpg)

Existing Landrover Defender

28.30

Jeep Wrangler

32.80

Mercedes benz Gclass G550

12.00

Nissan Patrol GR

26.20

Toyota Land Cruiser

25.02

NEW DEFENSE

28.30

As demonstrated by Fig. Above, the brand new opponent that is recommended however has got the second-best gas economy out-of its primary rivals. Just the Jeep Wrangler is more effective. An internet no change in energy economy is great thinking about the engine's energy continues to be elevated. For that vehicles possible marketplace of off road cars, the group has determined whilst the present Opponent has already been more fuel-efficient compared to most of its rivals that not obtaining any enhancement on gas economy is appropriate.

CO2 Emissions Estimation

The present Defenders to be 266 g CO2 emissions are documented /km. This number is likely to be utilized like a standard to determine the brand new engine emissions that are Defenders. Fig. Using the estimations 2.1 under quotes the change in motor emissions. 1.5 (Section. 2).

Function

Projected impact on CO2 motor pollutants

Gary/km (%) influence from present Defenders 266g/km CO2 exhaust

Growing motor capability by 600cc

+ 25%

+ 53.2 g/km

Upgrading present Turbocharger to some twin turbo (exhaust gas re use) charger

+ 5%

+ 26.6 g/km

Adding a variable-valve train program

- 10 PERCENT

- 26.6 g/km

Lowering the bore from 89.9mm to 82mm

- 10 PERCENT

- 26.6 g/km

Incorporating a Diesel Particulate Filter

~ 0%

~ 0 g/km

piezoelectric injectors (in the place of solenoid valves) in keeping-train program

- 10 PERCENT

- 26.6 g/km

Miscellaneous;

- Accelerometer Pilot Handle (APC)

- Enhanced ECU Mapping

- 5%

- 13.3 g/km

Complete impact on CO2 emissions =

- 5%

- 13.3 g/km Decrease

The present Defenders CO2 exhaust that is documented is 266g km. And so the new motors determined projected exhaust is;

Motor exhaust = 266 13.3 g/km = 252.7 g/km ~ 253 g/km

Automobile

Engine Emissions (CO2 h/km)

Existing Landrover Defender

266

Jeep Wrangler

227

Mercedes benz Gclass G550

322

Nissan Patrol GR

288

Toyota Land Cruiser

214

NEW OPPONENT

253

Fig. 2.2 above suggests that the brand new opponent that is recommended stays third-best out its rivals regarding emissions, despite a-5% decrease in emissions. The inclusion of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) nevertheless may greatly reduce the emissions of dangerous little particles as well as NOx emissions. The DPF won't nevertheless impact the exhaust of CO2 based on www.trolleycoalition.org (2002), and that's why in quotes of CO2 output, the DPF is recognized as to possess ~ per cent aftereffect of CO2 h/km output. Based on the Bosch Automotive Guide (2007) the DPF could be as much as 97% efficient, hence it may be thought the exhaust of dangerous particles (and smoke) may reduce by as much as 95% within the fresh motor using the inclusion of the DPF.

5. Dedication of Motor Design Guidelines

Brake imply powerful stress (BMEP) = 4?T/ V

Lazy 5.03 club

Maximum Torque 16.76 club

Maximum Energy 15.41 club

Suggested suggest powerful stress (IMEP) = BMEP/ nm

We suppose physical effectiveness nm = 0.85, which produces

Lazy 5.91 club

Maximum Torque 19.71 club

Maximum Energy 18.13 club

Friction imply powerful stress (FMEP) = IMEP - BMEP

Lazy 0.89 club

Maximum Torque 2.96 club

Maximum Energy 2.72 club

To find out retention rate, CR:

CR = VBDC / VTDC

= 500cc / 28.52cc

= 17.53

another style guidelines in the three energy problems are summarised within the table below.

Design Guidelines

Common

Idling

Max. Torque

Max. Energy

New Engine Weight approx. (kg)

300

Fat to Energy (max) Percentage, Mo (kg/kW)

2.3

Measurement Energy Percentage, Vo

0.000023

Compression Rate, CR

1.15

Energy, Pencil (kW)

12.57

83

131

Torque, T (Nm)

120

400

245.6

Motor Rotation Velocity (rpm)

1000

2000

3500

Imply piston velocity, Vm (m/s)

3.15

6.31

11.04

IMEP (bar)

5.91

19.71

18.13

BMEP (bar)

5.03

16.76

15.41

FMEP (bar)

0.89

2.96

2.72

GMEP (bar)

9.91

24.71

24.13

Power Thickness (when it comes to capability), PL (kW/L)

4

35

44

Power Thickness (when it comes to piston region), PF (kW/cm2)

397

3282

4134

The equations utilized in all measurements are found below:

Taken Amount per tube, Vs = (?*B2*S)/4

Piston Location: Ap = Vs/S or it may be determined as Ap= (?*B)2/4,

Ce =, engine Capacity. of cylinders

Motor energy: Pe=2*? *N* T

Brake Mean Effective Stress, BMEP = 2*?*T/ Vs

Physical effectiveness,?m =BMEP/IMEP

Suggest Piston Pace, Vm = (S/30)*n

S = engine-speed

D = quantity of shots

Friction Imply Effective Stress, FMEP = IMEP BMEP

Major Imply Effective Stress, GMEP = IMEP-PMEP

Power Density (utilizing Capability), PL = Pen /Vt (kilowatt/D)

PE = Motor energy

Vt = Complete motor capability (Litres)

Power Density (applying Piston Region), PF = Pen /(iAp) (kilowatt/cm2)

PE = Motor energy

i = Quantity Of Cylinders

Assumptions built during formula:

T = 368.5 Nm @ max energy (3500rpm)

T = 400.0 Nm @ max torque (2000rpm)

T = 120.0 Nm @ lazy (1000rpm)

To find out settlement top, hc:

Provided retention rate for prior motor is 17.5, capability bore size, W = 89.90mm and per tube is 600cc.

CR = VBDC/ VTDC

17.5 = 600/ VTDC

VTDC = 600/ 17.5

= 34.285 cc

VTDC = (?*(B)2/ 4)*hc

34.285 = ?*(8.99)2hc

hc = 0.54 cm = 5.4mm

Below the PV and G-??are plotted for that 3 running problems of the motor;

6. Engine Running Character

Weight Flow Diagram

Causes that work upon piston could be divided into normalized stress normalized and weight, fg inertial force. The mixture of both of these causes produces the resultant pressure that is actual. The formulae for that two causes are:

f_j=(m_j r?^2)/((?B^2)/4) (cos?+?cos2?)

And

f_g=(G/V)^1.4=22.5/[A_pr(1-cos?+0.075cos2?)]^1.4

Lastly, the resulting pressure is +f?_ Gary

The next guidelines have to determine resulting forces.

Reciprocating bulk is provided by:

m_j=m_p+m_l=m_p+(m_l (l-l^'))/l=0.45+(0.6(157.7-105))/127.7=0.65 kg

Piston Region is provided by:

A_p=(?B^2)/4=(??(0.082)?^2)/4=0.00528 m^2

And distance of crankshaft, r = 47.3 mm, period of connecting rod = 142mm.

The next weight flow images were therefore created for three-engine problems;

Pace Images of Primary Elements

The pace plan for conrod, piston and crankshaft are attracted applying speed and speed interactions regarding crank-angle,?. The formulae are as follow:

Velocity: v=sin??+?/2 sin2?

Acceleration: a=cos?+?cos2?

? is percentage of crankshaft distance over conrod size that will be thought to become 0.333. The next pace plan is therefore obtained using Matlab:

Weight on Motor Body (Mind/base/stop)

Optimum energy guidelines were utilized where the rpm could be 3500rpm to obtain the most weight feasible. Here are the equations used-to determine reciprocating inertial weight on tube block:

R_j1=F_j/2+T_kj/b=F_j/2+F_jr/b=F_j (1/2+r/b)=-m_j r?^2 (cos?+?cos2?)(1/2+r/b)

And

R_j2=F_j/2-T_kj/b=F_j/2-F_jr/b=F_j (1/2-r/b)=-m_j r?^2 (cos?+?cos2?)(1/2-r/b)

Rj1 and Rj2 represent the response causes at 2 base ends of the cylinder block.

Number 8:

The next chart shows an evaluation of masses at various operating problems, specifically idling (1000 rpm), optimum torque (2000 rpm) and optimum energy (3500 rpm).

7. Bulk Circulation and Motor Stability

Whilst the group has chose to utilize an inline-6 Motor setup to displace the present Defenders inline-4 that'll need the crankshaft to become re-designed healthy and. Since it is the greatest healthy motor setup an inline-6 configuration was selected. Within an inline-6, you will find three pairs of pistons which relocate exactly the same path, being 120 degrees in addition to the additional sets.

Turning people of motor elements and the reciprocating create forces that are significant. These causes produce elements resulting in higher frictional use of the motors going. To determine any imbalances' degree, the causes produced in the reciprocating and revolving people were divided into xy coordinate recommendations.

The crankshaft that is inline-6 is basically the mixture of two 3-cylinder crankshafts joined. Hence the evaluation was completed on the inline-6 crankshaft to create measurements easier.

Chosen Shooting Series 1 5 3 6 2 4

Stability of Reciprocating Bulk

Pressure evaluation

Caused by the pressure stability above suggests that there's total stability of the engines.

Second research

When it comes to the reciprocating nearby occasions, we obtain the subsequent results;

? M?_X=M_l cos60-M_r cos60

= am_j r?^2 [3/4 cos?+?(?3)/4 sin???-3?/4 cos2?-?(3?3?)/4 sin??2?]

? M?_y=M_l cos60+M_r cos60

= am_j r?^2 [3/4 cos?-?(?3)/4 sin???+3?/4 cos2?+?(?3?)/4 sin??2?]

It's determined the reciprocating size isn't completely healthy, and CAn't be balanced from the crankshaft or motor. Assistance motor brackets are hence utilized, to block the uneven reciprocating people out, from switching over avoiding the motor.

Stability of Rotating People

Pressure evaluation

X-axis:

Y-axis:

The pressure evaluation suggests that the revolving causes are instantly balanced from the crankshaft itself.

Second research

The outcomes of examining the revolving people about the crankshaft are summarised below;

X-axis:

M_x=Fr2acos30+Fracos30=(3?3)/2 F_r a

Y-axis:

M_y=F_r2a+Fr2asin30-Frasin30-F_ra = ( 3)/2 F_r a

Complete Second?

Hence as soon as is uneven.

Consequently in the measurements above it may be observed that a resulting revolving second is about the crankshaft because of the handle pin. Internet balancers are needed to balance this revolving movement. There is of the measurements to look for the bulk of the net balancers needed a listing explained below.

The Use Of Internet Balancers

To balance the revolving bulk, 8 internet balancers will be used by the look group as proven from the setup in Fig. 3.3 which demonstrates the places for only the crankshaft. This nevertheless isn't of managing an inline-6 motor, that will be to make use of 12 internet balancers as a whole the very best method. Nevertheless to save lots of fat about the motor there was a bargain selected to make use of 8 internet balancers.

The next equations and technique was used-to determine the bulk of the balancers;

m_r=m_c+m_2=m_c+ml'/l = 1.6kg hence,

And so the fat of every large internet balancer should equal 0.69kg

Engine Torque change

Torque because of reciprocating size

If it thought that T1 is just a the torque caused by among the reciprocating people, we get;

T_1=F_jrsin?(?+?)/cos?(?)

Where? Means the position between your upward path and also the conrod,

?=47.3/141.9=0.3333

r (period of the turn) =47.3mm

Fj may be the reciprocating pressure on piston

? F?_j=(m_j )?^2r(cos?+?cos2?) =13429.7(cos?+0.3cos2?)

A_p=(?B^2)/4=(??(0.082)?^2)/4=0.00528 m^2

Torque because of gas-pressure

It's thought that T2 may be the torque in one single tube because of gas-pressure functioning on it:

T2=PApr(sin?+0.15sin2?)

f_g=(P/V)^1.4=22.5/[A_pr(1-cos?+0.075cos2?)]^(-1.4)

Torque Change Chart

The torque because of the gas-pressure is little in contrast to the mass. The sum total torque is consequently;

The torque change in one single tube is hence distributed by the next

Flywheel Style

The formula to determine the inertia of the flywheel is listed below;

If = (900/?2) *[(? ??)/ (? n2)]

Where;

I_(f ) - Inertial second of flywheel (kg m^2)

? Portion of revolving bulk of the sum total motor (thought to become 0.8)

?? - the web work that may be saved within the flywheel and it is 280 NM within the style.

? - engine-speed unevenness, thought as 1/50 within this style.

I_(f )=(900/?^2 )*[0.8*280/(?2000?^2*1/50)]=0.255

To determine the inertia of the flywheel we also provide the next relationship:

Where;

G flywheel size

N flywheel size

The flywheel for preliminary formula is thought to be always a heavy disk of standard form. The substance selected is just a Titanium Metal having a thickness of 4420kg/m^3.

Where;

? - Thickness

h - Peak of flywheel and it is thought to become 25mm,

r - Distance of flywheel

The formula yields the flywheel distance, r =165mm.

The flywheels style nevertheless means as numerous contemporary flywheels are made that it's finer in its center than external size. The large submission of the flywheel was therefore recalculated utilizing the subsequent formulae;

We obtain the following measurements for that flywheel; R2=126mm, R1=195mm, r=165mm

G= ?h?r^2=4420 "x" 0.025 "x" 3.142 "x" ?(0.165)?^2=9.9kg

and So The bulk of the flywheel is 9.9kg.

A SolidWorks illustration of the flywheel is proven within the site by having an engineering drawing.

8. Design Drawings

9. Valvetrain Design

For brand new motor: 3.0L Diesel 6 cylinders in-line

Camshaft agreement form: DOHC

Quantity of device each tube: 4

Device type: poppet

Style Agreement

Dual over-head camshaft (DOHC)

DOHC, when compared with SOHC motors based on angelfire (2007), operate cooler, more easily, silently and effectively, since the engine has two times as several consumption and exhaust valves like a SOHC engine. The disadvantages are that DOHC motors charge more. 000 miles should be changed to make sure against costly motor repairs.

Chain-drive

Chain-drive has the capacity to consider high-load and it is very tough and trusted (the max torque of the brand new motor is 400Nm).

Four valves per tube.

Utilizing mushroom-formed poppet valve, it's excellent faculties on price, liquid circulation, closing, lubrication, and heat-transfer towards the cylinder-head mentioned by Rock (1999).

Variable Valve Timing (VVT)

The brand new motor agreement may have lobe handle with 3 distinct lobe users readily available for device time to become optimised at various problems.

Design Needs

Device overlap period

When it comes to the device overlap on motor operation's result, big turbocharged motors for particular operating problems might have a device overlap around 150. In a complete-weight running situation the back is likely to not be more than the increase pressure in the compressor -stress in the generator. Therefore the big device overlap enables an optimistic circulation of atmosphere although the motor. This described by Rock (1999) guarantees exceptional scavenging turbine chamber with high loadings, of valves.

Seat positions are needed (specifically for Al. Metal cylinder stop to make sure minimal use).

The center of the camera is offset from device axis so the poppet valves may turn to be able to actually out any use, and also to preserve great sitting

Device measurements (from Rock, 1999)

Intake valves' size is bigger than that of valves.

To get a flat-four-device mind, each intake device might be 39PERCENT of the diameter and each device might be 35% of the size. (Provides in regards to a 60% escalation in complete circumference, or 30% escalation in layer region, for identical Lv/Dv)

In the intake part the department between your two device locations must have a well rounded nose. To some sharp-edge wall camera blend out for that fatigue aspect department.

Variable-valve time (VVT)

The higher device overlap requires larger benefit of the heartbeat results that may be especially helpful at large motor rates (likewise for turbocharged diesel engines).

Though there's some restriction for compression ignition motors:

At top dead-centre: the piston to cylinder head settlement

At-bottom dead-centre: the intake device needs to shut right after BDC, normally the decrease in retention rate could make cool beginning also challenging

The number of device prospects and lags (from Xu, 2009)

For greatest motor efficiency

Consumption Available: 10-30 guide

Consumption Near: 45-75 lag

Fatigue Available: 45-75 guide

Fatigue Near: 10-30 lag

For reduced exhaust pollutants

Consumption Available: 2-10 guide

Consumption Near: 30-45 lag

Fatigue Available: 30- 45 guide

Fatigue Near: 2-10 lag

Device moment routes for that improved motor

Based on the style needs above, the quantities of lags and the prospects are described on the basis of the engine-speed. The quicker motor functioning, more atmosphere requirement for combustion therefore lag and guide of the intake device must improve using the boost of the engine-speed. Additionally, the more fatigue movement, the more energy produced from the motor turbo (since the fresh motor is twin turbo charged).

For idling at 1000 rpm:

In the idling rate, motor doesn't require an excessive amount of atmosphere for combustion, therefore the device overlaps of TDC are understood to be 60 and 10 for that motor performance enhancement, as found in Fig. 4.3.

Consumption Available 5 guide

Consumption Near 30 lag

Fatigue Available 30 guide

Fatigue Near 5 lag

For that max torque at 2000 rpm:

Once the engine-speed reaches 2000 rpm the most torque is attained, the overlaps improve to 100 and thirty see Fig. 4.4.

Consumption Available 15 guide

Consumption Near 50 lag

Fatigue Open 50 guide

Fatigue Near 15 lag

For that max energy at 3500 rpm:

Now, the device overlaps get to optimum (forty and 120 respectively) due to the max energy result, as found in Fig. the pollutants, as well as 4.5 would be the greatest.

Consumption Available 20 guide;

Consumption Near 60 lag

Fatigue Open 60 guide

Fatigue Near 20 lag

10. Summary

To determine the look group seems the engine update therefore and explained within this statement enhances about the efficiency marketability of the Landrover Defender motor that is present.

The energy economy remained exactly the same (despite the fact that the ability boost of the motor) and pollutants result continues to be enhanced while not to some good degree as automobiles like the Opponent aren't likely to possess the greatest gas economy or emissions requirements by potential prospects. Nevertheless maintaining atleast exactly the same energy economy while there's a rise in energy and pollutants will work for the Landrover organization picture.

The next primary guidelines determine the motor;

The next sophisticated systems were integrated;

Double-turbocharger

Variable-valve train (Camshaft lobe handle program)

Diesel Particulate Filter

Piezo-injectors for common-rail fuel treatment program (aged motor utilized solenoid valves)

Enhanced ECU mapping (stronger handle)

Speed Pilot Handle

The next analyzes the efficiency numbers for that fresh engine from the previous motor;

Performance Region

NEW ENGINE

PREVIOUS ENGINE

Proportion Enhancement (%)

Energy, BHP, (kW)

181 (135)

121 (90)

50%

Torque, Nm

400

360

11.1%

Fuel-Economy, mpg

28.3

28.3

0%

Engine Pollutants, CO2, g/km

253

266

5%

the next factors under need to be taken into account;

Elevated fat of motor from 200kg to 300kg. Nevertheless the Opponent design that is present still is likely to be using the new motor but is its lightest among rivals.

A bigger motor indicates higher production expenses, nevertheless the elevated automobile efficiency and, as Abeles (2004) describes, the truth that new-car rates increase annual means the elevated production costs might be integrated easier.

Appendix 1 Complete Benchmarking Desk

Motor Guidelines

Landrover Defender

Jeep Wrangler Unlimited

Mercedes benz Gclass G550

Nissan Patrol GR

Toyota Land Cruiser 3.0 D-D-4D H

Format

4 cyls In-Line, 2401 cc diesel

4 cyls In-Line, 2777 cc, turbocharged diesel

5439cc V8 gas, supercharged

2953cc di longitudinal inline-4 turbocharged

2982cc Longitudinal inline-4, diesel, Turbocharged

Max energy

121hp/90kw@3500

174hp/130kw @3800

512hp/382kw @ 6000 RPM

158hp/118kw @3600

170hp/123kw @3400

Max torque

360nm@2000

400nm@2000

391nm @ 2800 RPM

380 nm@2000

410nm@2000

Installment

Y Longitudinal

Y Longitudinal

Longitudinal

Y Longitudinal

longitudinal inline 4

Bore/stoke

89.9x94.6 mm

94.0x100.0 mm

97 X 92 mm

96.0x102.0 mm

96.0x103.0 mm

Retention rate

17.5:1

17.5:1

10.7:1

17.9:1

17.9:1

Key and gas

Common rail shot. Variable geometry turbocharger. , Diesel

Common-rail direct shot

indirect shot

indirect shot

Valves

dohc 4 valves per tube

dohc 4 valves per tube

dohc 3 valves per tube

dohc 4 valves per tube

dohc 4 valves per tube

Capacity to Weight Percentage

22.38:1 kW/kg 30hp/kg

16.19:1 kW/kg 21.7hp/kg

18.68:1 kW/kg

0.0872 PS/kg

Additional Guidelines

Cost

27,610

23,250

50,250

26,040

29,000

0-62 mph

14.7 sec

11.7 sec

6.1 sec

15.2 sec

12.7

Max-Speed

82 mph

112 mph

131 mph

99 mph

109mph

Body Measurements (L*W*H)

3894*1790*2021 mm

4751*2030*1840

4680*1864*1931

5030*1940*1855

4410*1800*1860

Fat

1797 kg

2030 kg

2456

2495 kg

2125 kg

Wheelbase

2360 mm

2947 mm

2850 mm

2970 mm

2460 mm

Fuel Tank

60 M

80 M

96 M

135 M

87 D

Combined/Urban

28.3 / 22.6 mpg

32.8 mpg/??

12/11 mpg

26.2 mpg/??

25.02 mpg/??

CO2 Pollutants

266 g/km

227 g/km

322 g/km

288 g/km

214 g/lm

Insides

Stay beam axle, simple price coil springs, telescopic hydraulic dampers

Live-axle, top hands, monitor club, coil springs, fuel shocks, stabiliser bar

rigid axle, circles, bumps, sports suspension

Solid-axle, 5 url, coil springs, stabiliser bar

rigid axle, coil springs, stabiliser bar, panhard rod

Steering Kind

Power-assisted, worm and roller

recirculating ball, power-assisted

recirculating ball power-assisted

recirculating ball, power-assisted

recirculating ball, power-assisted

Turns Lock to Secure

3.4

3.1

3.4

3.1

Top Wheels

298mm reliable disks

ventilated discs 302mm

ventilated discs

ventilated discs

ventilated discs

Rear Wheels

298mm reliable disks

Disks 316mm

ventilated discs

ventilated discs

ventilated drums-in-disks

Front Wheel & Tyres

235/85 R16,5.5J x 16 in

255/75 r17

285/55 r18

265/70 r16

265/70 r16 d

Rear Wheel & Tyres

235/85 R16,5.5J x 16 in

255/75 r17

285/55 r18

265/70 r16

265/70 r16 lt

Appendix 2 - Nomenclature

S Swing (mm)

W Bore dimension (mm)

r Distance of turn (mm)

? Angular velocity (rad/s)

? Crank-angle (e)

D pace of turn (rpm)

Vs Taken volume (m3)

CE Engine Capacity (m3)

PE Motor Energy (kilowatt)

hc Settlement Level (mm)

IMEP Suggested Mean Effective Stress (club)

BMEP Brake Mean Effective Stress (club)

GMEP Gross Imply Effective Stress (club)

FMEP Friction Imply Effective Stress (club)

?m Mechanical Performance

Vm Suggest Piston Velocity (m/s)

a Speed (m/s2)

v Speed (m/s)

mj Reciprocating bulk (kg)

mp Piston size (kg)

ml Conrod mass (kg)

fj Normalised Inertial Drive (D)

fg Normalised Weight (stress) (D)

Y Amount Of gas-pressure and inertial weight (N)

Rj1, Rj2 Reciprocating weight (response causes) on tube stop on both attributes (D)

bhp Brake HP (kilowatt)

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Group 12 Powertrain Engineering Project Phase 1 - Motor

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